Wednesday, September 20, 2017

2 Chronicles 1

Verse 13 is awkward. Translations correct it without comment. The translations are divided between Egypt (what is in the text) and Cilicia. Que or Kue is near or equivalent to Tarsus (in Cilecia). The sense of the last verses is obscure to me. (In fact the whole chapter is rather awkward and my English worse than usual.) Maybe the Chronicler has his own style or the text is degraded in part. I left Egypt in since that is the word in the Hebrew and the conflict of Israel and Egypt is a regular theme. I get the sense also that there were enough horses for all those foreign kings, the Hittites and the Syrians. They probably took their cut for goods brought from Cilicia through them, as is the the case for trade today in military hardware.

Solomon is painted as a big wheel indeed (as Samuel noted a king would be - 1 Samuel 8 - from my memory of English translations, not yet read in Hebrew). I guess it is obvious that conflict related to governance, special interests, points of view, power struggles, and so on, are pervasive in the texts. There is no prescriptive behaviour here, as if we, as royalty, should go and do likewise. Solomon is to judge his people with wisdom and knowledge, and he will end up also being judged by them, and if Qohelet is his, he will join in his own judgment, or suffer reading it after his demise.

There is an extra verse in the Hebrew, so 2 Chronicles 2 will be out by 1 in the verse numbers when we get there.

No atnach in verse 2 - 40 syllables without a rest! Catch your breath where you can on these long recitations.

2 Chronicles 1 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיִּתְחַזֵּ֛ק שְׁלֹמֹ֥ה בֶן־דָּוִ֖יד עַל־מַלְכוּת֑וֹ
וַיהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהָיו֙ עִמּ֔וֹ וַֽיְגַדְּלֵ֖הוּ לְמָֽעְלָה
1 And Solomon the child of David was resolved concerning his kingdom,
and Yahweh his God was with him and made him to be greatly ascendant.
3d 4C 14
14
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁלֹמֹ֣ה לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֡ל לְשָׂרֵי֩ הָאֲלָפִ֨ים וְהַמֵּא֜וֹת וְלַשֹּֽׁפְטִ֗ים וּלְכֹ֛ל נָשִׂ֥יא לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל רָאשֵׁ֥י הָאָבֽוֹת 2 And Solomon talked to all Israel, to the chiefs of thousands and of hundreds, and to the judges and to every principal for all Israel, the heads of the fathers. 3d 4B 40
וַיֵּלְכ֗וּ שְׁלֹמֹה֙ וְכָל־הַקָּהָ֣ל עִמּ֔וֹ לַבָּמָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּגִבְע֑וֹן
כִּי־שָׁ֣ם הָיָ֗ה אֹ֤הֶל מוֹעֵד֙ הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָׂ֛ה מֹשֶׁ֥ה עֶֽבֶד־יְהוָ֖ה בַּמִּדְבָּֽר
3 And they went, Solomon and all the congregation with him, to the high place that was in Gibeon,
for there was the tent of engagement of God which Moses the servant of Yahweh had made in the wilderness.
3d 4C 21
25
אֲבָ֗ל אֲר֤וֹן הָאֱלֹהִים֙ הֶעֱלָ֤ה דָוִיד֙ מִקִּרְיַ֣ת יְעָרִ֔ים בַּֽהֵכִ֥ין ל֖וֹ דָּוִ֑יד
כִּ֧י נָֽטָה־ל֛וֹ אֹ֖הֶל בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם
4 Lamentably the ark of God, David had brought up from Qiryath-Yearim into David's base for it,
for he had erected for it a tent in Jerusalem.
3c 4C 25
10
וּמִזְבַּ֣ח הַנְּחֹ֗שֶׁת אֲשֶׁ֤ר עָשָׂה֙ בְּצַלְאֵל֙ בֶּן־אוּרִ֣י בֶן־ח֔וּר שָׂ֕ם לִפְנֵ֖י מִשְׁכַּ֣ן יְהוָ֑ה
וַיִּדְרְשֵׁ֥הוּ שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה וְהַקָּהָֽל
5 And the brass altar that Betsalel, child of My Light, child of Hur had made, he set up before the dwelling of Yahweh,
and Solomon and the congregation searched out for it.
3e 4C 25
12
וַיַּעַל֩ שְׁלֹמֹ֨ה שָׁ֜ם עַל־מִזְבַּ֤ח הַנְּחֹ֙שֶׁת֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר לְאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד
וַיַּ֧עַל עָלָ֛יו עֹל֖וֹת אָֽלֶף
6 And Solomon offered up there on the altar of brass in the presence of Yahweh that was at the tent of engagement,
and he offered up on it a thousand burnt offerings.
3c 4C 24
9
בַּלַּ֣יְלָה הַה֔וּא נִרְאָ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים לִשְׁלֹמֹ֑ה
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ שְׁאַ֖ל מָ֥ה אֶתֶּן־לָֽךְ
7 In that night God appeared to Solomon,
and said to him, Ask what I will give you.
3e 4B 13
10
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר שְׁלֹמֹה֙ לֵֽאלֹהִ֔ים אַתָּ֗ה עָשִׂ֛יתָ עִם־דָּוִ֥יד אָבִ֖י חֶ֣סֶד גָּד֑וֹל
וְהִמְלַכְתַּ֖נִי תַּחְתָּֽיו
8 And Solomon said to God, You yourself have done with David my father great kindness,
and have made me reign in his stead.
3d 4C 23
7
עַתָּה֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהִ֔ים יֵֽאָמֵן֙ דְּבָ֣רְךָ֔ עִ֖ם דָּוִ֣יד אָבִ֑י
כִּ֤י אַתָּה֙ הִמְלַכְתַּ֔נִי עַל־עַ֕ם רַ֖ב כַּעֲפַ֥ר הָאָֽרֶץ
9 Now Yahweh, God, let your word with David my father be verified,
because you have made me reign over a people abundant like the dust of the earth.
3e 4C 18
16
עַתָּ֗ה חָכְמָ֤ה וּמַדָּע֙ תֶּן־לִ֔י וְאֵֽצְאָ֛ה לִפְנֵ֥י הָֽעָם־הַזֶּ֖ה וְאָב֑וֹאָה
כִּֽי־מִ֣י יִשְׁפֹּ֔ט אֶת־עַמְּךָ֥ הַזֶּ֖ה הַגָּדֽוֹל
10 Now wisdom and knowledge give me, that I may go out before this people and come in,
for who will judge this your great people.
3d 4C 22
12
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר־אֱלֹהִ֣ים ׀ לִשְׁלֹמֹ֡ה יַ֣עַן אֲשֶׁר֩ הָיְתָ֨ה זֹ֜את עִם־לְבָבֶ֗ךָ וְלֹֽא־שָׁ֠אַלְתָּ עֹ֣שֶׁר נְכָסִ֤ים וְכָבוֹד֙ וְאֵת֙ נֶ֣פֶשׁ שֹׂנְאֶ֔יךָ וְגַם־יָמִ֥ים רַבִּ֖ים לֹ֣א שָׁאָ֑לְתָּ
וַתִּֽשְׁאַל־לְךָ֙ חָכְמָ֣ה וּמַדָּ֔ע אֲשֶׁ֤ר תִּשְׁפּוֹט֙ אֶת־עַמִּ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר הִמְלַכְתִּ֖יךָ עָלָֽיו
11 And God said to Solomon, In that this was with your heart, and you did not ask for riches, material wealth, and glory, nor the throat of those hating you, and even for many days, you did not ask,
but you asked for yourself, wisdom and knowledge, that you may judge my people over whom I have made you king.
3e 4C 50
25
הַֽחָכְמָ֥ה וְהַמַּדָּ֖ע נָת֣וּן לָ֑ךְ
וְעֹ֨שֶׁר וּנְכָסִ֤ים וְכָבוֹד֙ אֶתֶּן־לָ֔ךְ אֲשֶׁ֣ר ׀ לֹא־הָ֣יָה כֵ֗ן לַמְּלָכִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לְפָנֶ֔יךָ וְאַחֲרֶ֖יךָ לֹ֥א יִֽהְיֶה־כֵּֽן
12 The wisdom and the knowledge is given to you,
and riches and material wealth and glory I will give you, such that there was not for kings who were before you, and after you neither will there be such.
3e 4C 10
35
וַיָּבֹ֨א שְׁלֹמֹ֜ה לַבָּמָ֤ה אֲשֶׁר־בְּגִבְעוֹן֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם מִלִּפְנֵ֖י אֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֑ד
וַיִּמְלֹ֖ךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
13 So came Solomon to the high place that was in Gibeon, Jerusalem ... from before the tent of engagement,
and reigned over Israel.
3e 4C 25
7
וַיֶּאֱסֹ֣ף שְׁלֹמֹה֮ רֶ֣כֶב וּפָרָשִׁים֒ וַֽיְהִי־ל֗וֹ אֶ֤לֶף וְאַרְבַּע־מֵאוֹת֙ רֶ֔כֶב וּשְׁנֵים־עָשָׂ֥ר אֶ֖לֶף פָּרָשִׁ֑ים
וַיַּנִּיחֵם֙ בְּעָרֵ֣י הָרֶ֔כֶב וְעִם־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָֽם
14 And Solomon gathered chariot and cavaliers, and he had a thousand four hundred of chariot and twelve thousand cavalry,
and he left them in the cities of the chariot and with the king in Jerusalem.
3e 4C 33
19
וַיִּתֵּ֨ן הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ אֶת־הַכֶּ֧סֶף וְאֶת־הַזָּהָ֛ב בִּירוּשָׁלִַ֖ם כָּאֲבָנִ֑ים
וְאֵ֣ת הָאֲרָזִ֗ים נָתַ֛ן כַּשִּׁקְמִ֥ים אֲשֶׁר־בַּשְּׁפֵלָ֖ה לָרֹֽב
15 And the king gave the silver and the gold in Jerusalem like stones,
and cedar he gave like sycamores, that are abundant in the lowly place.
3c 4B 23
18
וּמוֹצָ֧א הַסּוּסִ֛ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר לִשְׁלֹמֹ֖ה מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם
וּמִקְוֵ֕א סֹחֲרֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ מִקְוֵ֥א יִקְח֖וּ בִּמְחִֽיר
16 And the horses brought out that were Solomon's were from Egypt,
and from Que. The wares of the king from Que they took at a price.
3c 4B 15
15
וַֽ֠יַּעֲלוּ וַיּוֹצִ֨יאוּ מִמִּצְרַ֤יִם מֶרְכָּבָה֙ בְּשֵׁ֣שׁ מֵא֣וֹת כֶּ֔סֶף וְס֖וּס בַּחֲמִשִּׁ֣ים וּמֵאָ֑ה
וְ֠כֵן לְכָל־מַלְכֵ֧י הַֽחִתִּ֛ים וּמַלְכֵ֥י אֲרָ֖ם בְּיָדָ֥ם יוֹצִֽיאוּ
17 And they brought up, and they brought out from Egypt, chariot at six hundred of silver, and horse at one hundred and fifty,
and so for all the kings of the Hittites, and the kings of Aram, by their means, they brought out.
3c 4C 29
20
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁלֹמֹ֗ה לִבְנ֥וֹת בַּ֙יִת֙ לְשֵׁ֣ם יְהוָ֔ה וּבַ֖יִת לְמַלְכוּתֽוֹ 18 And Solomon made a pronouncement to build a house to the name of Yahweh, and a house for his kingdom. 3e 4B 21

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

1 Kings 1

Recalling 1 Kings 2, this chapter is the background of Adonijah's request for Abishag the Shunamite as his wife. Power, even political power, as well as holiness (I am just reading the sections in Bill Morrow's book Introduction to Biblical Law, on the Holiness code, and the Priestly laws) are strongly in the mind of the time with respect to intimacy, perhaps especially since the denial of the David-Abishag relationship is up front in this chapter. Note also the implied definition of sinners, those who are at odds with the established government of the day.

I have and must slow down my pace since my household has tripled. The 2 year old asked me yesterday for 'the book' I started with him, the hilarious cartoon intro to prayer book Hebrew, Og the Terrible. Og the Terrible עג הרשׁה is a thief of sorts, but he only steals Torah. I would say that most of the kings were pretty good at stealing Torah. I am not sure I would have liked to meet any of them in a dark alley.

1 Kings 1 Fn Min Max Syll
וְהַמֶּ֤לֶךְ דָּוִד֙ זָקֵ֔ן בָּ֖א בַּיָּמִ֑ים
וַיְכַסֻּ֙הוּ֙ בַּבְּגָדִ֔ים וְלֹ֥א יִחַ֖ם לֽוֹ
1 And king David was old when it comes to days,
and they covered him with garments, but there was no heat for him.
3e 4C 12
12
וַיֹּ֧אמְרוּ ל֣וֹ עֲבָדָ֗יו יְבַקְשׁ֞וּ לַאדֹנִ֤י הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ נַעֲרָ֣ה בְתוּלָ֔ה וְעָֽמְדָה֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וּתְהִי־ל֖וֹ סֹכֶ֑נֶת
וְשָׁכְבָ֣ה בְחֵיקֶ֔ךָ וְחַ֖ם לַאדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
2 And his servants said to him, Let there be sought for my lord the king, a virgin lass, and let her stand in the presence of the king, and let her cherish him,
and lie down in your bosom, and there will be warmth for my lord the king.
3c 4C 35
15
וַיְבַקְשׁוּ֙ נַעֲרָ֣ה יָפָ֔ה בְּכֹ֖ל גְּב֣וּל יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַֽיִּמְצְא֗וּ אֶת־אֲבִישַׁג֙ הַשּׁ֣וּנַמִּ֔ית וַיָּבִ֥אוּ אֹתָ֖הּ לַמֶּֽלֶךְ
3 And they sought a beautiful lass within every border of Israel,
and they found Abishag the Shunamite, and they brought her to the king.
3e 4B 15
21
וְהַֽנַּעֲרָ֖ה יָפָ֣ה עַד־מְאֹ֑ד
וַתְּהִ֨י לַמֶּ֤לֶךְ סֹכֶ֙נֶת֙ וַתְּשָׁ֣רְתֵ֔הוּ וְהַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לֹ֥א יְדָעָֽהּ
4 And the lass was excessively beautiful,
and she cherished the king and ministered to him, but the king did not know her.
3e 4C 10
20
וַאֲדֹנִיָּ֧ה בֶן־חַגִּ֛ית מִתְנַשֵּׂ֥א לֵאמֹ֖ר אֲנִ֣י אֶמְלֹ֑ךְ
וַיַּ֣עַשׂ ל֗וֹ רֶ֚כֶב וּפָ֣רָשִׁ֔ים וַחֲמִשִּׁ֥ים אִ֖ישׁ רָצִ֥ים לְפָנָֽיו
5 And Adonijah child of Haggit lifted himself up, saying, I, I will reign.
And he made for himself chariot and cavaliers, and fifty men to race before him.
3c 4C 17
20
וְלֹֽא־עֲצָב֨וֹ אָבִ֤יו מִיָּמָיו֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר מַדּ֖וּעַ כָּ֣כָה עָשִׂ֑יתָ
וְגַם־ה֤וּא טֽוֹב־תֹּ֙אַר֙ מְאֹ֔ד וְאֹת֥וֹ יָלְדָ֖ה אַחֲרֵ֥י אַבְשָׁלֽוֹם
6 And his father did not disabuse him in his days, saying, Why have you done thus?
And moreover he was good, very handsome, and she had given birth to him after Absalom.
3e 4C 19
19
וַיִּהְי֣וּ דְבָרָ֔יו עִ֚ם יוֹאָ֣ב בֶּן־צְרוּיָ֔ה וְעִ֖ם אֶבְיָתָ֣ר הַכֹּהֵ֑ן
וַֽיַּעְזְר֔וּ אַחֲרֵ֖י אֲדֹנִיָּֽה
7 And his words were with Joab, child of Tseruyah, and with Abiatar the priest,
and they helped the inclination of Adonijah.
3e 4C 21
11
וְצָד֣וֹק הַ֠כֹּהֵן וּבְנָיָ֨הוּ בֶן־יְהוֹיָדָ֜ע וְנָתָ֤ן הַנָּבִיא֙ וְשִׁמְעִ֣י וְרֵעִ֔י וְהַגִּבּוֹרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר לְדָוִ֑ד
לֹ֥א הָי֖וּ עִם־אֲדֹנִיָּֽהוּ
8 But Zadok the priest and Beniah, child of Jehoiada, and Nathan the prophet, and Shimei and Rei, and the valiant who were David's,
were not with Adonijah.
3e 4C 37
9
וַיִּזְבַּ֣ח אֲדֹנִיָּ֗הוּ צֹ֤אן וּבָקָר֙ וּמְרִ֔יא עִ֚ם אֶ֣בֶן הַזֹּחֶ֔לֶת אֲשֶׁר־אֵ֖צֶל עֵ֣ין רֹגֵ֑ל
וַיִּקְרָ֗א אֶת־כָּל־אֶחָיו֙ בְּנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וּלְכָל־אַנְשֵׁ֥י יְהוּדָ֖ה עַבְדֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
9 And Adonijah was offering sheep and oxen and fatling with the Stone of the Serpents, that was next to the Eye of the Foot,
and he called all his brothers, the sons of the king, and all the men of Judah, the servants of the king.
3e 4C 28
24
וְֽאֶת־נָתָן֩ הַנָּבִ֨יא וּבְנָיָ֜הוּ וְאֶת־הַגִּבּוֹרִ֛ים וְאֶת־שְׁלֹמֹ֥ה אָחִ֖יו לֹ֥א קָרָֽא 10 But Nathan the prophet, Benaiah and the valiant, and Solomon his brother, he did not call. 3d 3g 27
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר נָתָ֗ן אֶל־בַּת־שֶׁ֤בַע אֵם־שְׁלֹמֹה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הֲל֣וֹא שָׁמַ֔עַתְּ כִּ֥י מָלַ֖ךְ אֲדֹנִיָּ֣הוּ בֶן־חַגִּ֑ית
וַאֲדֹנֵ֥ינוּ דָוִ֖ד לֹ֥א יָדָֽע
11 And Nathan said to Bathsheva the mother of Solomon, saying, Have you not heard that Adonijah child of Haggit reigns,
and our lord David does not know?
3e 4C 31
10
וְעַתָּ֕ה לְכִ֛י אִיעָצֵ֥ךְ נָ֖א עֵצָ֑ה
וּמַלְּטִי֙ אֶת־נַפְשֵׁ֔ךְ וְאֶת־נֶ֥פֶשׁ בְּנֵ֖ךְ שְׁלֹמֹֽה
12 And now come, let me advise you please with counsel, that you yourself may escape, and your son Solomon. 3d 4A 11
15
לְכִ֞י וּבֹ֣אִי ׀ אֶל־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֗ד וְאָמַ֤רְתְּ אֵלָיו֙ הֲלֹֽא־אַתָּ֞ה אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ נִשְׁבַּ֤עְתָּ לַאֲמָֽתְךָ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר כִּֽי־שְׁלֹמֹ֤ה בְנֵךְ֙ יִמְלֹ֣ךְ אַחֲרַ֔י וְה֖וּא יֵשֵׁ֣ב עַל־כִּסְאִ֑י
וּמַדּ֖וּעַ מָלַ֥ךְ אֲדֹנִיָֽהוּ
13 Go, and enter to the king, David, and say to him, Did you not yourself, my lord the king, swear to your maidservant, saying, For Solomon your son will reign after me, and himself, he will sit on my throne?
Why then does Adonijah reign?
3e 4C 53
10
הִנֵּ֗ה עוֹדָ֛ךְ מְדַבֶּ֥רֶת שָׁ֖ם עִם־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
וַאֲנִי֙ אָב֣וֹא אַחֲרַ֔יִךְ וּמִלֵּאתִ֖י אֶת־דְּבָרָֽיִךְ
14 Behold while you are speaking there with the king,
then I will enter after you, and I will corroborate your words.
3d 4B 13
18
וַתָּבֹ֨א בַת־שֶׁ֤בֶע אֶל־הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ הַחַ֔דְרָה וְהַמֶּ֖לֶךְ זָקֵ֣ן מְאֹ֑ד
וַֽאֲבִישַׁג֙ הַשּׁ֣וּנַמִּ֔ית מְשָׁרַ֖ת אֶת־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
15 And Bathsheva came to the king into the inner room,
and the king was very old, and Abishag the Shunamite ministered to the king.
3e 4C 21
15
וַתִּקֹּ֣ד בַּת־שֶׁ֔בַע וַתִּשְׁתַּ֖חוּ לַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ מַה־לָּֽךְ
16 And Bathsheva bowed her head and prostrated herself to the king,
and the king said, How are you?
3e 4B 13
8
וַתֹּ֣אמֶר ל֗וֹ אֲדֹנִי֙ אַתָּ֨ה נִשְׁבַּ֜עְתָּ בַּֽיהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ לַֽאֲמָתֶ֔ךָ כִּֽי־שְׁלֹמֹ֥ה בְנֵ֖ךְ יִמְלֹ֣ךְ אַחֲרָ֑י
וְה֖וּא יֵשֵׁ֥ב עַל־כִּסְאִֽי
17 And she said to him, My lord you are. You swore in Yahweh your God, saying, For Solomon your son will reign after me,
and himself, he will sit on my throne.
3e 4C 34
7
וְעַתָּ֕ה הִנֵּ֥ה אֲדֹנִיָּ֖ה מָלָ֑ךְ
וְעַתָּ֛ה אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לֹ֥א יָדָֽעְתָּ
18 And now, behold, Adonijah reigns.
And now, my lord the king, you did not know.
3d 4A 11
13
וַ֠יִּזְבַּח שׁ֥וֹר וּֽמְרִיא־וְצֹאן֮ לָרֹב֒ וַיִּקְרָא֙ לְכָל־בְּנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וּלְאֶבְיָתָר֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וּלְיֹאָ֖ב שַׂ֣ר הַצָּבָ֑א
וְלִשְׁלֹמֹ֥ה עַבְדְּךָ֖ לֹ֥א קָרָֽא
19 ~ And he has offered bull and fatling and sheep in abundance, and he has called for all the sons of the king, and for Abiatar the priest, and for Joab chief of the host,
but for Solomon your servant, he did not call.
3e 4B 34
10
וְאַתָּה֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ עֵינֵ֥י כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל עָלֶ֑יךָ
לְהַגִּ֣יד לָהֶ֔ם מִ֗י יֵשֵׁ֛ב עַל־כִּסֵּ֥א אֲדֹנִֽי־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אַחֲרָֽיו
20 And you, my lord the king, the eyes of all Israel are on you,
to announce to them who will sit on the throne of my Lord the king after him.
3d 4B 18
19
וְהָיָ֕ה כִּשְׁכַ֥ב אֲדֹנִֽי־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ עִם־אֲבֹתָ֑יו
וְהָיִ֗יתִי אֲנִ֛י וּבְנִ֥י שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה חַטָּאִֽים
21 Or it will happen, as my lord the king is laid out with his ancestors,
then I myself will be, and my son Solomon, sinners.
3d 4A 14
14
וְהִנֵּ֛ה עוֹדֶ֥נָּה מְדַבֶּ֖רֶת עִם־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
וְנָתָ֥ן הַנָּבִ֖יא בָּֽא
22 And behold, while she was speaking with the king,
Nathan the prophet came in.
3d 4A 14
7
וַיַּגִּ֤ידוּ לַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הִנֵּ֖ה נָתָ֣ן הַנָּבִ֑יא
וַיָּבֹא֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַיִּשְׁתַּ֧חוּ לַמֶּ֛לֶךְ עַל־אַפָּ֖יו אָֽרְצָה
23 And they told the king, saying, Behold, Nathan the prophet.
And he came into the presence of the king, and he prostrated himself to the king on his nose earthward.
3c 4C 16
20
וַיֹּאמֶר֮ נָתָן֒ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אַתָּ֣ה אָמַ֔רְתָּ אֲדֹנִיָּ֖הוּ יִמְלֹ֣ךְ אַחֲרָ֑י
וְה֖וּא יֵשֵׁ֥ב עַל־כִּסְאִֽי
24 And Nathan said, My lord the king, have you yourself said, Adonijah will reign after me,
and himself, he will sit on my throne?
3e 4B 26
7
כִּ֣י ׀ יָרַ֣ד הַיּ֗וֹם וַ֠יִּזְבַּח שׁ֥וֹר וּֽמְרִיא־וְצֹאן֮ לָרֹב֒ וַיִּקְרָא֩ לְכָל־בְּנֵ֨י הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ וּלְשָׂרֵ֤י הַצָּבָא֙ וּלְאֶבְיָתָ֣ר הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהִנָּ֛ם אֹכְלִ֥ים וְשֹׁתִ֖ים לְפָנָ֑יו
וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ יְחִ֖י הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ אֲדֹנִיָּֽהוּ
25 B For he has gone down today, and is offering bull and fatling and sheep in abundance, and he has called for all the sons of the king and the chiefs of the host, and for Abiatar the priest, and behold them eating and imbibing before him,
and they are saying, May the king Adonijah live.
3d 4C 49
13
וְלִ֣י אֲנִֽי־עַ֠בְדֶּךָ וּלְצָדֹ֨ק הַכֹּהֵ֜ן וְלִבְנָיָ֧הוּ בֶן־יְהוֹיָדָ֛ע וְלִשְׁלֹמֹ֥ה עַבְדְּךָ֖ לֹ֥א קָרָֽא 26 But me, (I myself am your servant) and Zadok the priest, and Benaiah child of Jehoiada, and Solomon your servant, he did not call. 3c 4B 33
אִ֗ם מֵאֵת֙ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ נִהְיָ֖ה הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה
וְלֹ֤א הוֹדַ֙עְתָּ֙ אֶֽת־עַבְדְּךָ֔ מִ֗י יֵשֵׁ֛ב עַל־כִּסֵּ֥א אֲדֹנִֽי־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אַחֲרָֽיו
27 ~ From my lord the king is this matter?
And you have not made known to your servant who will sit on the throne of my lord the king after him?
3d 4C 16
23
וַיַּ֨עַן הַמֶּ֤לֶךְ דָּוִד֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר קִרְאוּ־לִ֖י לְבַת־שָׁ֑בַע
וַתָּבֹא֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַֽתַּעֲמֹ֖ד לִפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
28 And the king David answered and he said, Call to me Bathsheva,
and she came into the presence of the king, and she stood in the presence of the king.
3e 4C 18
17
וַיִּשָּׁבַ֥ע הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וַיֹּאמַ֑ר
חַי־יְהוָ֕ה אֲשֶׁר־פָּדָ֥ה אֶת־נַפְשִׁ֖י מִכָּל־צָרָֽה
29 And the king swore and he said,
Yahweh lives who ransoms me from all trouble.
3e 4A 10
15
כִּ֡י כַּאֲשֶׁר֩ נִשְׁבַּ֨עְתִּי לָ֜ךְ בַּיהוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר כִּֽי־שְׁלֹמֹ֤ה בְנֵךְ֙ יִמְלֹ֣ךְ אַחֲרַ֔י וְה֛וּא יֵשֵׁ֥ב עַל־כִּסְאִ֖י תַּחְתָּ֑י
כִּ֛י כֵּ֥ן אֶעֱשֶׂ֖ה הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה
30 ~ For as I have sworn to you in Yahweh the God of Israel, saying, For Solomon your son will reign after me, and himself, he will sit on my throne instead of me,
for so I will do this day.
3d 4C 38
9
וַתִּקֹּ֨ד בַּת־שֶׁ֤בַע אַפַּ֙יִם֙ אֶ֔רֶץ וַתִּשְׁתַּ֖חוּ לַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
וַתֹּ֕אמֶר יְחִ֗י אֲדֹנִ֛י הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ דָּוִ֖ד לְעֹלָֽם
31 And Bathsheva bowed, noses to earth, and prostrated herself to the king,
and she said, May my lord the king David live forever.
3d 4C 17
16
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֗ד קִרְאוּ־לִ֞י לְצָד֤וֹק הַכֹּהֵן֙ וּלְנָתָ֣ן הַנָּבִ֔יא וְלִבְנָיָ֖הוּ בֶּן־יְהוֹיָדָ֑ע
וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ לִפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
32 And the king David said, Call for me Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah child of Jehoiada.
And they came into the presence of the king.
3e 4C 33
8
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ לָהֶ֗ם קְח֤וּ עִמָּכֶם֙ אֶת־עַבְדֵ֣י אֲדֹנֵיכֶ֔ם וְהִרְכַּבְתֶּם֙ אֶת־שְׁלֹמֹ֣ה בְנִ֔י עַל־הַפִּרְדָּ֖ה אֲשֶׁר־לִ֑י
וְהוֹרַדְתֶּ֥ם אֹת֖וֹ אֶל־גִּחֽוֹן
33 And the king said to them, Take with you the servants of your lord and have Solomon my son ride on the mule that is mine,
and bring him down him to Gihon.
3e 4C 37
9
וּמָשַׁ֣ח אֹת֣וֹ שָׁ֠ם צָד֨וֹק הַכֹּהֵ֜ן וְנָתָ֧ן הַנָּבִ֛יא לְמֶ֖לֶךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וּתְקַעְתֶּם֙ בַּשּׁוֹפָ֔ר וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֕ם יְחִ֖י הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹֽה
34 And there let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him king over Israel,
and sound the shophar and say, May the king Solomon live.
3c 4B 24
18
וַעֲלִיתֶ֣ם אַחֲרָ֗יו וּבָא֙ וְיָשַׁ֣ב עַל־כִּסְאִ֔י וְה֥וּא יִמְלֹ֖ךְ תַּחְתָּ֑י
וְאֹת֤וֹ צִוִּ֙יתִי֙ לִֽהְי֣וֹת נָגִ֔יד עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וְעַל־יְהוּדָֽה
35 And you will come up after him, and he will come and sit on my throne, and himself, he will reign instead of me. And him I command to be heralded over Israel and over Judah. 3e 4C 21
19
וַיַּ֨עַן בְּנָיָ֧הוּ בֶן־יְהֽוֹיָדָ֛ע אֶת־הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ אָמֵ֑ן
כֵּ֚ן יֹאמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה אֱלֹהֵ֖י אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
36 And Benaiah child of Jehoiada answered the king, and he said,
Amen. So let Yahweh say, the God of my lord the king.
3c 4C 21
14
כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר הָיָ֤ה יְהוָה֙ עִם־אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ כֵּ֖ן יִֽהְיֶ֣ה עִם־שְׁלֹמֹ֑ה
וִֽיגַדֵּל֙ אֶת־כִּסְא֔וֹ מִ֨כִּסֵּ֔א אֲדֹנִ֖י הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ דָּוִֽד
37 As was Yahweh with my lord the king so let him be with Solomon,
and let his throne become greater than the throne of my Lord the king David.
3e 4C 21
17
וַיֵּ֣רֶד צָד֣וֹק הַ֠כֹּהֵן וְנָתָ֨ן הַנָּבִ֜יא וּבְנָיָ֣הוּ בֶן־יְהוֹיָדָ֗ע וְהַכְּרֵתִי֙ וְהַפְּלֵתִ֔י וַיַּרְכִּ֙בוּ֙ אֶת־שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה עַל־פִּרְדַּ֖ת הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֑ד
וַיֹּלִ֥כוּ אֹת֖וֹ עַל־גִּחֽוֹן
38 And Zadok the priest went down, and Nathan the prophet and Beniah child of Jehoiada, and the Cheretites and the Pelethites, and made Solomon ride on the mule of the king David,
and they went with him to Gihon.
3e 4B 47
9
וַיִּקַּח֩ צָד֨וֹק הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶת־קֶ֤רֶן הַשֶּׁ֙מֶן֙ מִן־הָאֹ֔הֶל וַיִּמְשַׁ֖ח אֶת־שְׁלֹמֹ֑ה
וַֽיִּתְקְעוּ֙ בַּשּׁוֹפָ֔ר וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ כָּל־הָעָ֔ם יְחִ֖י הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹֽה
39 And Zadok the priest took the horn of oil from the tent and he anointed Solomon.
And they sounded the shofar and all the people said, May the king Solomon live.
3e 4C 25
21
וַיַּעֲל֤וּ כָל־הָעָם֙ אַֽחֲרָ֔יו וְהָעָם֙ מְחַלְּלִ֣ים בַּחֲלִלִ֔ים וּשְׂמֵחִ֖ים שִׂמְחָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֑ה
וַתִּבָּקַ֥ע הָאָ֖רֶץ בְּקוֹלָֽם
40 Then came up all the people after him, and the people started to whistle and were mirthful with great gladness,
and split the earth with their voices.
3e 4C 28
10
וַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע אֲדֹנִיָּ֗הוּ וְכָל־הַקְּרֻאִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִתּ֔וֹ וְהֵ֖ם כִּלּ֣וּ לֶאֱכֹ֑ל
וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע יוֹאָב֙ אֶת־ק֣וֹל הַשּׁוֹפָ֔ר וַיֹּ֕אמֶר מַדּ֥וּעַ קֽוֹל־הַקִּרְיָ֖ה הוֹמָֽה
41 And Adonijah heard and all the convocation that were with him, and they had finished eating,
and Joab heard the voice of the shophar, and he said Why is the voice of the town murmuring.
3e 4C 24
22
עוֹדֶ֣נּוּ מְדַבֵּ֔ר וְהִנֵּ֧ה יוֹנָתָ֛ן בֶּן־אֶבְיָתָ֥ר הַכֹּהֵ֖ן בָּ֑א
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲדֹנִיָּ֙הוּ֙ בֹּ֔א כִּ֣י אִ֥ישׁ חַ֛יִל אַ֖תָּה וְט֥וֹב תְּבַשֵּֽׂר
42 And while he was speaking, behold Yonathan child of Abiatar the priest came,
and Adonijah said, Come, for a man of ability you are, and good, you bring good news.
3c 4C 20
20
וַיַּ֙עַן֙ יוֹנָתָ֔ן וַיֹּ֖אמֶר לַאֲדֹנִיָּ֑הוּ
אֲבָ֕ל אֲדֹנֵ֥ינוּ הַמֶּֽלֶךְ־דָּוִ֖ד הִמְלִ֥יךְ אֶת־שְׁלֹמֹֽה
43 And Yonathan answered and said to Adonijah,
Lamentably, our lord the king, David, has made Solomon king.
3e 4A 15
17
וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח אִתּֽוֹ־הַ֠מֶּלֶךְ אֶת־צָד֨וֹק הַכֹּהֵ֜ן וְאֶת־נָתָ֣ן הַנָּבִ֗יא וּבְנָיָ֙הוּ֙ בֶּן־יְה֣וֹיָדָ֔ע וְהַכְּרֵתִ֖י וְהַפְּלֵתִ֑י
וַיַּרְכִּ֣בוּ אֹת֔וֹ עַ֖ל פִּרְדַּ֥ת הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
44 And the king has sent with him Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Beniah child of Jehoiada, and the Cheretites and the Pelethites,
and they have made him ride on the mule of the king.
3e 4B 37
12
וַיִּמְשְׁח֣וּ אֹת֡וֹ צָד֣וֹק הַכֹּהֵ֣ן וְנָתָן֩ הַנָּבִ֨יא לְמֶ֜לֶךְ בְּגִח֗וֹן וַיַּעֲל֤וּ מִשָּׁם֙ שְׂמֵחִ֔ים וַתֵּהֹ֖ם הַקִּרְיָ֑ה
ה֥וּא הַקּ֖וֹל אֲשֶׁ֥ר שְׁמַעְתֶּֽם
45 And Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet have anointed him king in Gihon, and they are coming up from there glad, so the town was excited.
This is the rumbling that you have heard.
3e 4C 38
8
וְגַם֙ יָשַׁ֣ב שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה עַ֖ל כִּסֵּ֥א הַמְּלוּכָֽה 46 And moreover Solomon sits on the throne of the kingdom. 3e 4B 13
וְגַם־בָּ֜אוּ עַבְדֵ֣י הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ לְ֠בָרֵךְ אֶת־אֲדֹנֵ֜ינוּ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִד֮ לֵאמֹר֒ יֵיטֵ֨ב אֱלֹהִ֜ים אֶת־שֵׁ֤ם שְׁלֹמֹה֙ מִשְּׁמֶ֔ךָ וִֽיגַדֵּ֥ל אֶת־כִּסְא֖וֹ מִכִּסְאֶ֑ךָ
וַיִּשְׁתַּ֥חוּ הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ עַל־הַמִּשְׁכָּֽב
47 And moreover the servants of the king came to bless our lord the king, David, saying, May God make the name of Solomon better than your name, and may his throne became greater than your throne,
and the king prostrated himself on the litter.
3e 4C 47
11
וְגַם־כָּ֖כָה אָמַ֣ר הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ
בָּר֨וּךְ יְהוָ֜ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר נָתַ֥ן הַיּ֛וֹם יֹשֵׁ֥ב עַל־כִּסְאִ֖י וְעֵינַ֥י רֹאֽוֹת
48 And moreover, thus says the king,
Blessed is Yahweh, the God of Israel, who has given today one to sit on my throne, and my eyes see.
3d 4B 9
26
וַיֶּֽחֶרְדוּ֙ וַיָּקֻ֔מוּ כָּל־הַ֨קְּרֻאִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר לַאֲדֹנִיָּ֑הוּ
וַיֵּלְכ֖וּ אִ֥ישׁ לְדַרְכּֽוֹ
49 And they were apprehensive, and all the convocation arose that was with Adonijah,
and they walked each its own way.
3e 4A 20
7
וַאֲדֹ֣נִיָּ֔הוּ יָרֵ֖א מִפְּנֵ֣י שְׁלֹמֹ֑ה
וַיָּ֣קָם וַיֵּ֔לֶךְ וַֽיַּחֲזֵ֖ק בְּקַרְנ֥וֹת הַמִּזְבֵּֽחַ
50 And Adonijah feared from the presence of Solomon,
and he arose, and he walked away, and held resolutely to the horns of the altar.
3e 4B 13
17
וַיֻּגַּ֤ד לִשְׁלֹמֹה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הִנֵּה֙ אֲדֹ֣נִיָּ֔הוּ יָרֵ֖א אֶת־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹ֑ה
וְ֠הִנֵּה אָחַ֞ז בְּקַרְנ֤וֹת הַמִּזְבֵּ֙חַ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר יִשָּֽׁבַֽע־לִ֤י כַיּוֹם֙ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה אִם־יָמִ֥ית אֶת־עַבְדּ֖וֹ בֶּחָֽרֶב
51 And it was told to Solomon, saying, Behold Adonijah fears the king Solomon,
and behold he holds fast to the horns of the altar, saying, let the king Solomon swear to me as of today not to put to death his servant by the sword.
3e 4C 24
35
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה אִ֚ם יִהְיֶ֣ה לְבֶן־חַ֔יִל לֹֽא־יִפֹּ֥ל מִשַּׂעֲרָת֖וֹ אָ֑רְצָה
וְאִם־רָעָ֥ה תִמָּצֵא־ב֖וֹ וָמֵֽת
52 And Solomon said, If he is to the son, worthy, his hair will not fall earthward,
but if evil is found in him, then he will die.
3e 4C 22
10
וַיִּשְׁלַ֞ח הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹ֗ה וַיֹּרִדֻ֙הוּ֙ מֵעַ֣ל הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ וַיָּבֹ֕א וַיִּשְׁתַּ֖חוּ לַמֶּ֣לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹ֑ה
וַיֹּֽאמֶר־ל֥וֹ שְׁלֹמֹ֖ה לֵ֥ךְ לְבֵיתֶֽךָ
53 And the king Solomon sent and they brought him down from the altar, and and he came and he prostrated himself to king Solomon,
and Solomon said to him, Go to your house.
3e 4B 33
12

Monday, September 18, 2017

Software and bugs

The summer is turning to fall and the wasps are drowsy. Well, one of them must have gotten into my software, because a part of it that I check with every completed chapter was not working. I asked myself why I was no longer seeing the concordance error list, because I always have one or two or more failures in gloss as I work word by word. Well I discovered it was failing silently, and over 50 errors had crept up behind me over the last several weeks. They have all been corrected. I apologize. If you see an error, feel free to comment. Hopefully gently, but eventually I may listen.

The routine that failed was the one that catches places where my concordance rules have been transgressed. Perhaps I should go back to programming for a while to improve the design. I need to isolate the primary glosses for a stem to make the process easier. It involves deriving and adding a data element valued based on the English stem. While I was correcting errors, I noted some interesting inter-stem relationships in Hebrew. I hope I get to these, words like עדה, ידע, יעד, עוד where there are similar sounds and some suggestive relationships, give thanks, know, engage, witness.

Saturday, September 16, 2017

Proverbs 24

One chapter of the books of truth left. One chapter of poetry. What will I do for respite? Verses 33-34 with preamble repeat a verse of chapter 6 with slightly differing spelling.

Proverbs 24 Fn Min Max Syll
אַל־תְּ֭קַנֵּא בְּאַנְשֵׁ֣י רָעָ֑ה
וְאַל־תִּ֝תְאָ֗יו לִהְי֥וֹת אִתָּֽם
1 Do not be jealous of evil persons,
and do not desire to be with them.
3e 4B 9
8
כִּי־שֹׁ֭ד יֶהְגֶּ֣ה לִבָּ֑ם
וְ֝עָמָ֗ל שִׂפְתֵיהֶ֥ם תְּדַבֵּֽרְנָה
2 For their heart meditates devastation,
and misery their lips speak.
3e 4B 6
10
בְּ֭חָכְמָה יִבָּ֣נֶה בָּ֑יִת
וּ֝בִתְבוּנָ֗ה יִתְכּוֹנָֽן
3 g In wisdom a house is built,
and in discernment it is established.
3e 4B 8
7
וּ֭בְדַעַת חֲדָרִ֣ים יִמָּלְא֑וּ
כָּל־ה֖וֹן יָקָ֣ר וְנָעִֽים
4 g And in knowledge rooms are filled,
all precious and pleasant value.
3e 4B 9
7
גֶּֽבֶר־חָכָ֥ם בַּע֑וֹז
וְאִֽישׁ־דַּ֝֗עַת מְאַמֶּץ־כֹּֽחַ
5 One who is wise prevails against strength,
but a person of knowledge assures power.
3e 4A 6
9
כִּ֣י בְ֭תַחְבֻּלוֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה־לְּךָ֣ מִלְחָמָ֑ה
וּ֝תְשׁוּעָ֗ה בְּרֹ֣ב יוֹעֵֽץ
6 B For through pledges will you make for yourself war?
But there is safety in much consultation.
3e 4B 13
7
רָאמ֣וֹת לֶֽאֱוִ֣יל חָכְמ֑וֹת
בַּ֝שַּׁ֗עַר לֹ֣א יִפְתַּח־פִּֽיהוּ
7 High ground for the obstinate is shrewdness.
In the gate, it will not open its mouth.
3e 4B 7
8
מְחַשֵּׁ֥ב לְהָרֵ֑עַ
ל֝֗וֹ בַּֽעַל־מְזִמּ֥וֹת יִקְרָֽאוּ
8 Who devises to do evil,
the superior schemer they will call him.
3e 4A 7
9
זִמַּ֣ת אִוֶּ֣לֶת חַטָּ֑את
וְתוֹעֲבַ֖ת לְאָדָ֣ם לֵֽץ
9 The agenda of the obstinate, sin,
and an abomination to an earthling, scorn.
3e 4B 7
8
הִ֭תְרַפִּיתָ בְּי֥וֹם צָרָ֗ה צַ֣ר כֹּחֶֽכָה 10 g You are timid in the day of trouble? Troubled is your power. 3e 4B 12
הַ֭צֵּל לְקֻחִ֣ים לַמָּ֑וֶת
וּמָטִ֥ים לַ֝הֶ֗רֶג אִם־תַּחְשֽׂוֹךְ
11 g Deliver those taken to death,
and those moved to slay. Or do you keep back?
3e 4B 8
9
כִּֽי־תֹאמַ֗ר הֵן֮ לֹא־יָדַ֪עְנ֫וּ זֶ֥ה
הֲ‍ֽלֹא־תֹ֘כֵ֤ן לִבּ֨וֹת ׀ הֽוּא־יָבִ֗ין וְנֹצֵ֣ר נַ֭פְשְׁךָ ה֣וּא יֵדָ֑ע
וְהֵשִׁ֖יב לְאָדָ֣ם כְּפָעֳלֽוֹ
12 But you said, Lo, we did not know this.
Will not he who balances hearts discern? And he who preserves you, he knows, and he will return to an earthling according to its works.
3d 4C 7
17
10
אֱכָל־בְּנִ֣י דְבַ֣שׁ כִּי־ט֑וֹב
וְנֹ֥פֶת מָ֝ת֗וֹק עַל־חִכֶּֽךָ
13 Eat, my child, honey, for it is good,
and the honeycomb, sweet against your palate.
3e 4B 8
9
כֵּ֤ן ׀ דְּעֶ֥ה חָכְמָ֗ה לְנַ֫פְשֶׁ֥ךָ
אִם־מָ֭צָאתָ וְיֵ֣שׁ אַחֲרִ֑ית
וְ֝תִקְוָתְךָ֗ לֹ֣א תִכָּרֵֽת
14 C Such is the knowledge of wisdom to your being, if you so find.
And there is a latter end, so your expectation will not be cut off.
3e 4C 9
9
8
אַל־תֶּאֱרֹ֣ב רָ֭שָׁע לִנְוֵ֣ה צַדִּ֑יק
אַֽל־תְּשַׁדֵּ֥ד רִבְצוֹ
15 Do not lie in wait, wicked one, for the home of the righteous one,
Do not devastate his reclining.
3e 4B 10
6
כִּ֤י שֶׁ֨בַע ׀ יִפּ֣וֹל צַדִּ֣יק וָקָ֑ם
וּ֝רְשָׁעִ֗ים יִכָּשְׁל֥וּ בְרָעָֽה
16 C For seven times a righteous one will fall and he will arise,
but the wicked will stumble into evil.
3e 4C 9
9
בִּנְפֹ֣ל אֽ֭וֹיִבְךָ אַל־תִּשְׂמָ֑ח
וּ֝בִכָּשְׁל֗וֹ אַל־יָגֵ֥ל לִבֶּֽךָ
17 When your enemy falls, do not be glad,
and when he stumbles, let not your heart rejoice.
3e 4B 8
10
פֶּן־יִרְאֶ֣ה יְ֭הוָה וְרַ֣ע בְּעֵינָ֑יו
וְהֵשִׁ֖יב מֵעָלָ֣יו אַפּֽוֹ
18 Lest Yahweh see and it is evil in his eyes,
then he turn from him his anger.
3e 4B 10
8
אַל־תִּתְחַ֥ר בַּמְּרֵעִ֑ים
אַל־תְּ֝קַנֵּ֗א בָּרְשָׁעִֽים
19 Do not burn about evildoers,
do not be jealous about the wicked.
3e 4A 6
7
כִּ֤י ׀ לֹֽא־תִהְיֶ֣ה אַחֲרִ֣ית לָרָ֑ע
נֵ֖ר רְשָׁעִ֣ים יִדְעָֽךְ
20 C For there will not be a latter end for evil.
The lamp of the wicked will be extinguished.
3e 4C 9
6
יְרָֽא־אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה בְּנִ֣י וָמֶ֑לֶךְ
עִם־שׁ֝וֹנִ֗ים אַל־תִּתְעָרָֽב
21 Fear Yahweh, my child, for he reigns.
With those who vary, do not intermingle.
3e 4B 10
7
כִּֽי־פִ֭תְאֹם יָק֣וּם אֵידָ֑ם
וּפִ֥יד שְׁ֝נֵיהֶ֗ם מִ֣י יוֹדֵֽעַ
22 For suddenly their misfortune will arise,
and who knows the disaster of both of them.
3e 4B 7
9
גַּם־אֵ֥לֶּה לַֽחֲכָמִ֑ים
הַֽכֵּר־פָּנִ֖ים בְּמִשְׁפָּ֣ט בַּל־טֽוֹב
23 Even these are for the shrewd.
To recognize faces in the judgment is not good.
3e 4B 7
9
אֹ֤מֵ֨ר ׀ לְרָשָׁע֮ צַדִּ֪יק אָ֥תָּה יִקְּבֻ֥הוּ עַמִּ֑ים
יִזְעָמ֥וּהוּ לְאֻמִּֽים
24 C Who says to the wicked, You are a righteous one,
peoples will pierce him tribes will be indignant to him.
3d 4C 14
7
וְלַמּוֹכִיחִ֥ים יִנְעָ֑ם
וַֽ֝עֲלֵיהֶ֗ם תָּב֥וֹא בִרְכַּת־טֽוֹב
25 But for the referees, pleasure,
and on them comes the blessing of good.
3e 4A 7
9
שְׂפָתַ֥יִם יִשָּׁ֑ק
מֵ֝שִׁ֗יב דְּבָרִ֥ים נְכֹחִֽים
26 Lips he kisses,
for one who returns straightforward words.
3e 4A 5
8
הָ֘כֵ֤ן בַּח֨וּץ ׀ מְלַאכְתֶּ֗ךָ וְעַתְּדָ֣הּ בַּשָּׂדֶ֣ה לָ֑ךְ
אַ֝חַ֗ר וּבָנִ֥יתָ בֵיתֶֽךָ
27 ~ Establish outside your affairs, and be eager in the field for yourself.
Afterwards you will build your house.
3e 4C 16
9
אַל־תְּהִ֣י עֵד־חִנָּ֣ם בְּרֵעֶ֑ךָ
וַ֝הֲפִתִּ֗יתָ בִּשְׂפָתֶֽיךָ
28 Do not be a witness for nothing against your associate,
or seduce with your lips.
3e 4B 10
9
אַל־תֹּאמַ֗ר כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר עָֽשָׂה־לִ֭י כֵּ֤ן אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־לּ֑וֹ
אָשִׁ֖יב לָאִ֣ישׁ כְּפָעֳלֽוֹ
29 Do not say, As he dealt with me, so I will deal for him.
I will return to each according to its works.
3e 4C 14
8
עַל־שְׂדֵ֣ה אִישׁ־עָצֵ֣ל עָבַ֑רְתִּי
וְעַל־כֶּ֝֗רֶם אָדָ֥ם חֲסַר־לֵֽב
30 Over the field of a slothful person I crossed,
and over the vineyard of an earthling lacking in heart,
3e 4B 9
9
וְהִנֵּ֨ה עָ֘לָ֤ה כֻלּ֨וֹ ׀ קִמְּשֹׂנִ֗ים כָּסּ֣וּ פָנָ֣יו חֲרֻלִּ֑ים
וְגֶ֖דֶר אֲבָנָ֣יו נֶהֱרָֽסָה
31 And behold all of it an ascendance of weeds. Nettles covered its face,
and the fence of its stones was overthrown.
3e 4C 17
10
וָֽאֶחֱזֶ֣ה אָ֭נֹכִֽי אָשִׁ֣ית לִבִּ֑י
רָ֝אִ֗יתִי לָקַ֥חְתִּי מוּסָֽר
32 And I myself grasped fundamentals in my heart.
I saw. I received mentoring.
3e 4B 11
8
מְעַ֣ט שֵׁ֭נוֹת מְעַ֣ט תְּנוּמ֑וֹת
מְעַ֓ט ׀ חִבֻּ֖ק יָדַ֣יִם לִשְׁכָּֽב
33 A little sleep, a little slumber,
a little clasping of hands to lie down,
3e 4B 9
8
וּבָֽא־מִתְהַלֵּ֥ךְ רֵישֶׁ֑ךָ
וּ֝מַחְסֹרֶ֗יךָ כְּאִ֣ישׁ מָגֵֽן
34 so comes a traveler, your want,
and your deprivation, as someone shielded.
3e 4B 8
9

Rioting, Hurricanes, Mushroom-shaped Cloud and the OT

We are approaching 7 or more billion people. We have serious concerns over the climate and the resulting weather. Africa has not fared well since the '60s and the Kingston Trio's song, They're rioting in Africa...

The lyrics are too apt.

Claude Mariottini posts about the dying of the Old Testament here. And I hope he doesn't post any of my comments, for they were driven out of me too soon.

As for the OT, like the Christ, Dying, it will die and must, but living, it will live. (I think now in recurring words sometimes, a Hebraism).

It will not live, however, in the King James rendition. This authorized translation is a severe oversimplification of the language. (You have seen my railing about this and other inheritors of the old Latin and old Greek translations for ages.)

Most of them are focused too much on soul and punishment, neither of which words is required in the translation of this collection of history, poetry, and legal material. They also focus too much on preserving the social status quo of the 17th century. (But don't we want to preserve our status quo? At least some of us do, especially the privileged!)

I know why people do not read the OT – it is very hard to read. It is by no means obvious or perspicuous. It requires historical, cultural, and linguistic awareness. There is no magical God who arrives like the cavalry in a western to save his people. The people must become aware of the consequences of their violent actions and they must learn the painful process of change. God’s work is clear e.g. Psalm 146 in my very stilted English,

I am safer if I just read and avoid my opinions.

5. Happy the one who has the God of Jacob for its help.
Its reliance is on Yahweh its God,
6. who makes heaven and earth, the sea
and all that is in them,
keeping truth forever,
7. doing judgment for the oppressed, giving bread to the hungry,
Yahweh, releasing the prisoners,
8. Yahweh, giving sight to the blind, Yahweh, uplifting the disturbed,
Yahweh, loving the righteous,
9. Yahweh, sheltering the guest. Orphan and widow he relieves,
and the way of the wicked he subverts.

This is how we, the people must learn to behave, together and individually. It is how Jesus behaved. If a Christian is to follow Jesus, it must be done through the way that he learned, from this same set of texts. I regret to say I do not think it is possible to learn without doing some serious exercise in Hebrew. But equally, I am sure that the Most High will mitigate this demand for those who really do hear with God’s voice. (Another Hebraism.) Good actions are greater than right words. I only hope for some good effect.

I have neither license nor degree, but I read. I am about 63% through, 349 chapters to go (not in sequence). There are 929 chapters and none of them is a slam-dunk. I still have about 20 months close work ahead of me. Then I can begin to do some analysis. I began in Hebrew in 2006 – so I am about 11 years old. And as naive as the average 11 year old. I do not yet know all that the work will teach me. The end is known at the end even if the beginning began with promise.

I know a bit of what I don’t know – that is, Will the children of God from all traditions find these texts useful? While the OT (/TNK) is canonical for three religious traditions, it is clear that anyone can learn of it and from it. Will we learn to distinguish what is good from what is not? And how long?

Psalm 13
2 How long please Yahweh will you forget me? perpetually?
How long please will you hide your face from me?
3 How long please must I impose advice on myself, sadness in my heart by day?
How long please will my enemy be exalted over me?
4 Take note – answer me Yahweh my God.
Light my eyes, lest I be dead asleep,
5 lest my enemy say, I have overpowered him.
My foes will rejoice, for I will be moved.
6 But I, I have trusted in your kindness. My heart will rejoice in your salvation.
I will sing to Yahweh,
for he has matured me.

That set of thoughts was driven out of me by Claude's post, and too quickly, with the odd typo and occasional missing comma.

I do love the old texts because I love the fire that created them, but equally I fume at the justifications for racism, slavery, and isolation that can be read into them.

I just read a sentence in the Neapolitan Quartet, book 4 page 146, a statement by an aged adulterer who was catholic of course as is the tradition in Italy, and the author writes of him circa the ’60s … “He made allusive remarks. Then he began to complain: Nothing is in its place, the Ten Commandments have been abolished, women, who can restrain them, it’s all a whorehouse.”

We cannot preserve the status quo in our silos, political, religious, or social. We are like a dry forest after a wet spring with bracken and grass as kindling just before the lightning strikes.

Can the lessons of the Old Testament provoke us with a solution to our woes? And how will we get such hope to the 7 billion and growing world.

If not this, then what? Fire, flood, and radiation. Just as the Kingston Trio sang about.

And I don't like an-y-bo-dy very much!

Friday, September 15, 2017

Leviticus 24

The Ambiguous Details of the Blasphemer Narrative, Leuchter, JBL, volume 130 #3 (2011) suggests that the story is meant to condemn the family and institutions founded by Solomon. There are some strange juxtapositions in this set of laws, following on from the judgments we have been reading. This passage rose up in my lists because of the repetition of the lex talionis. Also note the inclusio of the one who makes light, slights, or denies Yahweh. That story contains the other judgments.

Leuchter asks why the name of the mother is inserted into this case law. It is a puzzle. I wonder how I can reconcile נכה, strike, smite, etc with the gloss kill. I can't. It either means strike or kill not both. When I observe children and their competition, I see self-interest, violence, and slighting of each other. It is all part of the mix. And there are consequences, important steps in the thought process of human self-governance. They cannot be ultimate. I do like making challah, and the children like cake.

Leviticus 24 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 1 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
צַ֞ו אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְיִקְח֨וּ אֵלֶ֜יךָ שֶׁ֣מֶן זַ֥יִת זָ֛ךְ כָּתִ֖ית לַמָּא֑וֹר
לְהַעֲלֹ֥ת נֵ֖ר תָּמִֽיד
2 ~ Command the children of Israel that they take to you clear beaten olive oil for the light,
to trim a lamp continually.
3d 4B 23
7
מִחוּץ֩ לְפָרֹ֨כֶת הָעֵדֻ֜ת בְּאֹ֣הֶל מוֹעֵ֗ד יַעֲרֹךְ֩ אֹת֨וֹ אַהֲרֹ֜ן מֵעֶ֧רֶב עַד־בֹּ֛קֶר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה תָּמִ֑יד
חֻקַּ֥ת עוֹלָ֖ם לְדֹרֹֽתֵיכֶֽם
3 Outside of the veil of the testimony, in the tent of engagement, Aaron will arrange it from evening until morning in the presence of Yahweh continually,
a statute forever for your generations.
3c 4B 34
9
עַ֚ל הַמְּנֹרָ֣ה הַטְּהֹרָ֔ה יַעֲרֹ֖ךְ אֶת־הַנֵּר֑וֹת
לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה תָּמִֽיד
4 C On the lustrous lamp stand he will arrange the lamps,
in the presence of Yahweh continually.
3e 4C 14
6
וְלָקַחְתָּ֣ סֹ֔לֶת וְאָפִיתָ֣ אֹתָ֔הּ שְׁתֵּ֥ים עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה חַלּ֑וֹת
שְׁנֵי֙ עֶשְׂרֹנִ֔ים יִהְיֶ֖ה הַֽחַלָּ֥ה הָאֶחָֽת
5 And you will take fine flour and bake twelve cakes.
Two tenths there will be in the one cake.
3e 4B 18
13
וְשַׂמְתָּ֥ אוֹתָ֛ם שְׁתַּ֥יִם מַֽעֲרָכ֖וֹת שֵׁ֣שׁ הַֽמַּעֲרָ֑כֶת
עַ֛ל הַשֻּׁלְחָ֥ן הַטָּהֹ֖ר לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָֽה
6 And put them in two ranks, six per rank,
on the clean table in the presence of Yahweh.
3d 4B 17
11
וְנָתַתָּ֥ עַל־הַֽמַּעֲרֶ֖כֶת לְבֹנָ֣ה זַכָּ֑ה
וְהָיְתָ֤ה לַלֶּ֙חֶם֙ לְאַזְכָּרָ֔ה אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהוָֽה
7 And you will position on the rank, clear frankincense,
and it will be for the bread, for a memorial, an offering by fire to Yahweh.
3e 4C 15
14
בְּי֨וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֜ת בְּי֣וֹם הַשַּׁבָּ֗ת יַֽעַרְכֶ֛נּוּ לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה תָּמִ֑יד
מֵאֵ֥ת בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּרִ֥ית עוֹלָֽם
8 On the day of the Sabbath, on the day of the Sabbath, he will arrange it in the presence of Yahweh continually,
from the children of Israel, a covenant forever.
3d 4B 20
11
וְהָֽיְתָה֙ לְאַהֲרֹ֣ן וּלְבָנָ֔יו וַאֲכָלֻ֖הוּ בְּמָק֣וֹם קָדֹ֑שׁ
כִּ֡י קֹדֶשׁ֩ קָֽדָשִׁ֨ים ה֥וּא ל֛וֹ מֵאִשֵּׁ֥י יְהוָ֖ה חָק־עוֹלָֽם
9 And it will be for Aaron and for his children, and they will eat it in the holy place,
for holy of holy things it is, for it is from the fire of Yahweh, a statute evermore.
3d 4B 20
16
וַיֵּצֵא֙ בֶּן־אִשָּׁ֣ה יִשְׂרְאֵלִ֔ית וְהוּא֙ בֶּן־אִ֣ישׁ מִצְרִ֔י בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיִּנָּצוּ֙ בַּֽמַּחֲנֶ֔ה בֶּ֚ן הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִ֔ית וְאִ֖ישׁ הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִֽי
10 And a child of an Israelite woman came forth, and he was a child of an Egyptian man among the children of Israel,
and the Israelite child struggled in the camp, and an Israelite man.
3e 4C 23
21
וַ֠יִּקֹּב בֶּן־הָֽאִשָּׁ֨ה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִ֤ית אֶת־הַשֵּׁם֙ וַיְקַלֵּ֔ל וַיָּבִ֥יאוּ אֹת֖וֹ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֑ה
וְשֵׁ֥ם אִמּ֛וֹ שְׁלֹמִ֥ית בַּת־דִּבְרִ֖י לְמַטֵּה־דָֽן
11 ~ And the child of the Israelite woman drilled the name, and he was making light, and they brought him to Moses,
and the name of his mother, Peace-Daughter-of-My-Word of the branch of Dan.
3d 4C 27
14
וַיַּנִּיחֻ֖הוּ בַּמִּשְׁמָ֑ר
לִפְרֹ֥שׁ לָהֶ֖ם עַל־פִּ֥י יְהוָֽה
12 And they left him in a keep,
to make distinctly clear to them concerning the mandate of Yahweh.
3e 4A 8
8
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 13 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
הוֹצֵ֣א אֶת־הַֽמְקַלֵּ֗ל אֶל־מִחוּץ֙ לַֽמַּחֲנֶ֔ה וְסָמְכ֧וּ כָֽל־הַשֹּׁמְעִ֛ים אֶת־יְדֵיהֶ֖ם עַל־רֹאשׁ֑וֹ
וְרָגְמ֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ כָּל־הָעֵדָֽה
14 Bring out the one who makes light, outside the camp,
and let all hearing support their hands on his head and all the assembly will crowd him.
3c 4B 27
9
וְאֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל תְּדַבֵּ֣ר לֵאמֹ֑ר
אִ֥ישׁ אִ֛ישׁ כִּֽי־יְקַלֵּ֥ל אֱלֹהָ֖יו וְנָשָׂ֥א חֶטְאֽוֹ
15 And to the children of Israel you will speak, saying,
Any person that makes light of his God, then he will bear his sin.
3d 4B 12
14
וְנֹקֵ֤ב שֵׁם־יְהוָה֙ מ֣וֹת יוּמָ֔ת רָג֥וֹם יִרְגְּמוּ־ב֖וֹ כָּל־הָעֵדָ֑ה
כַּגֵּר֙ כָּֽאֶזְרָ֔ח בְּנָקְבוֹ־שֵׁ֖ם יוּמָֽת
16 And one who drills the name of Yahweh will be put to death. All the assembly will crowd against him.
As the guest, as the native, in drilling the name, will be put to death.
3e 4C 18
11
וְאִ֕ישׁ כִּ֥י יַכֶּ֖ה כָּל־נֶ֣פֶשׁ אָדָ֑ם
מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽת
17 And anyone that strikes any human being will be put to death. 3e 4B 10
3
וּמַכֵּ֥ה נֶֽפֶשׁ־בְּהֵמָ֖ה יְשַׁלְּמֶ֑נָּה
נֶ֖פֶשׁ תַּ֥חַת נָֽפֶשׁ
18 And one who strikes the throat of a beast he will pay for it,
throat in stead of throat.
3e 4A 12
6
וְאִ֕ישׁ כִּֽי־יִתֵּ֥ן מ֖וּם בַּעֲמִית֑וֹ
כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה כֵּ֖ן יֵעָ֥שֶׂה לּֽוֹ
19 And a person that permits a spot in his fellow,
as he has done, so will be done to him.
3e 4B 9
10
שֶׁ֚בֶר תַּ֣חַת שֶׁ֔בֶר עַ֚יִן תַּ֣חַת עַ֔יִן שֵׁ֖ן תַּ֣חַת שֵׁ֑ן
כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֥ן מוּם֙ בָּֽאָדָ֔ם כֵּ֖ן יִנָּ֥תֶן בּֽוֹ
20 C Break in stead of break, eye in stead of eye, tooth in stead of tooth,
as he permits a spot in a human, so it will be permitted in him.
3e 4C 14
14
וּמַכֵּ֥ה בְהֵמָ֖ה יְשַׁלְּמֶ֑נָּה
וּמַכֵּ֥ה אָדָ֖ם יוּמָֽת
21 And one who strikes a beast he will pay for it.
And one who strikes a human will be put to death.
3e 4A 10
7
מִשְׁפַּ֤ט אֶחָד֙ יִהְיֶ֣ה לָכֶ֔ם כַּגֵּ֥ר כָּאֶזְרָ֖ח יִהְיֶ֑ה
כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
22 One judgment there will be for you. As the guest, as the native, it will be,
for I am Yahweh your God.
3d 4C 15
9
וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר מֹשֶׁה֮ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וַיּוֹצִ֣יאוּ אֶת־הַֽמְקַלֵּ֗ל אֶל־מִחוּץ֙ לַֽמַּחֲנֶ֔ה וַיִּרְגְּמ֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ אָ֑בֶן
וּבְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל עָשׂ֔וּ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־מֹשֶֽׁה
23 And Moses spoke to the children of Israel, and they brought out the one that made light outside the camp, and crowded him with a stone.
And the children of Israel did as Yahweh commanded Moses.
3d 4B 34
17

Wednesday, September 13, 2017

Exodus 21

Here is another chapter of the covenant code (20:22-24:18). Ancient legal programming. This section is called after the word Mishpatim in verse 1, the judgments. The introduction to this case law in its different forms is very clearly outlined in Morrow's book, An Introduction to Biblical Law, that I have noted in a few of the prior posts.

I had no idea how hard this would be. If I had begun here, stopping, I would have stopped long ago. Stumbling along, I can still stumble, but read on and see why my soulless reading is key to recognizing that life is not as simple or as transparent or as perspicuous as the traditional translations would lead you to believe.

Here I can see that I must use male language. The laws here were made for men and while they may apply to the women by implication in some cases, there are specifics about women that require one to see gender differences. There is no gender blindness in this part of the ancient text. My thinking at the moment is that for reading these ancient texts, one might as well recognize that the imposition of this particular modern bias is a distraction sometimes not worth the effort because the modern bias distorts what one is supposed to learn from the reading. Verse 21 shows an example of the male pronoun referring back to both a male or a female antecedent. The use of  the male pronoun for non-gender-specific reference is early. Wherever a female reader would identify with the protagonist in a reading, let it be so. And wherever a male reader would identify with an explicitly female protagonist, let it be so. Without this faithful identity transformation, no reader will understand either the goodness of God or the abuse that is supremely evident in the human. We must learn to hear with God's voice.

Pronouns and prepositions have the usual difficulties. Regardless of gender, they are often ambiguous and the reader must supply the resolution as to which noun is the antecedent of which pronoun.

It is curious how the use of אלוהים (Elohim, God, the gods) changes in this chapter. In verse 6, it is applied to what may be human actors, and in verse 13, God is seen as the authority behind an accidental homicide. Note also the application of verse 14 to the situation of Joab which we read recently.

I am beginning to imagine ways of interpreting paired repeated words. Here we see them in case law, so the traditional application of some sort of emphasis seems legitimate (e.g. fully healed verse 19).

I note that the KJV is again very frequent with punishment where there is no such word in the Hebrew text. Equally they are frequent with oversimplification of glosses. The use of judges for both Elohim and פליל from פלל intercession in the same chapter, (see also Job's last speech for a similar usage in chapter 31), and the use of strive for both ריב and נצה within verses of each other underlines the problem of concordance in that version. While much variation in gloss is expected, I find the overlaps, and the unnecessary synonyms to be misleading. The overlaps are I think a deliberate simplification for the English reader. But the Bible is far from simple, and a simplistic reading leads to a mess of trouble. Well, if this chapter is any comfort, consequences are assured.

The lex talionis is one where people say, An eye for an eye and soon the whole world is blind. It seems to be more subtle than that. To date, in spite of the preposition problem, I have never used for for תהת (under, instead of, lower parts, etc) For for is a ubiquitous gloss in English. (As you can see four fors in those last two sentences.)

So verse 23 gave me pause - what will I do with נֶ֖פֶשׁ תַּ֥חַת נָֽפֶשׁ, soul תהת soul? being תהת being? Not life as KJV has, since that disobeys my rules. Perhaps integrity תהת integrity, or throat תהת throat. Life is a long distance interpretation. Who loses נפשׁ loses integrity, self, being, throat, its breath, and therefore its life. It is a dismal result of an accidental induced birth. For תהת, I have used here consistently the awkward in stead of, archaic I suspect.

Note the application of verse 37  in the case of Zacchaeus (Luke 19).

Exodus 21 Fn Min Max Syll
וְאֵ֙לֶּה֙ הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר תָּשִׂ֖ים לִפְנֵיהֶֽם 1 And these are the judgments that you will put before them. 3e 3g 14
כִּ֤י תִקְנֶה֙ עֶ֣בֶד עִבְרִ֔י שֵׁ֥שׁ שָׁנִ֖ים יַעֲבֹ֑ד
וּבַ֨שְּׁבִעִ֔ת יֵצֵ֥א לַֽחָפְשִׁ֖י חִנָּֽם
2 C If you buy a Hebrew slave, six years he will serve,
and in the seventh he will go out free for nothing.
3e 4C 13
11
אִם־בְּגַפּ֥וֹ יָבֹ֖א בְּגַפּ֣וֹ יֵצֵ֑א
אִם־בַּ֤עַל אִשָּׁה֙ ה֔וּא וְיָצְאָ֥ה אִשְׁתּ֖וֹ עִמּֽוֹ
3 If by himself he came in, by himself he will come out.
If he had married a wife, then his wife will go out with him.
3e 4C 11
13
אִם־אֲדֹנָיו֙ יִתֶּן־ל֣וֹ אִשָּׁ֔ה וְיָלְדָה־ל֥וֹ בָנִ֖ים א֣וֹ בָנ֑וֹת
הָאִשָּׁ֣ה וִילָדֶ֗יהָ תִּהְיֶה֙ לַֽאדֹנֶ֔יהָ וְה֖וּא יֵצֵ֥א בְגַפּֽוֹ
4 If his master gave him a wife, and she gave birth for him sons or daughters,
the wife and her juveniles will be for her master, and he will come out by himself.
3e 4B 18
20
וְאִם־אָמֹ֤ר יֹאמַר֙ הָעֶ֔בֶד אָהַ֙בְתִּי֙ אֶת־אֲדֹנִ֔י אֶת־אִשְׁתִּ֖י וְאֶת־בָּנָ֑י
לֹ֥א אֵצֵ֖א חָפְשִֽׁי
5 And if the servant say, I love my Lord, my wife, and my children,
I will not go out free.
3e 4C 23
5
וְהִגִּישׁ֤וֹ אֲדֹנָיו֙ אֶל־הָ֣אֱלֹהִ֔ים וְהִגִּישׁוֹ֙ אֶל־הַדֶּ֔לֶת א֖וֹ אֶל־הַמְּזוּזָ֑ה
וְרָצַ֨ע אֲדֹנָ֤יו אֶת־אָזְנוֹ֙ בַּמַּרְצֵ֔עַ וַעֲבָד֖וֹ לְעֹלָֽם
6 Then his master will bring him close to the gods, or he will bring him close to the gateway or to the jamb,
and his master will awl his ear with an awl, and he will serve him forever.
3e 4C 25
20
וְכִֽי־יִמְכֹּ֥ר אִ֛ישׁ אֶת־בִּתּ֖וֹ לְאָמָ֑ה
לֹ֥א תֵצֵ֖א כְּצֵ֥את הָעֲבָדִֽים
7 And if someone sells his daughter as a maidservant,
she will not go out as the menservants go out.
3d 4A 11
9
אִם־רָעָ֞ה בְּעֵינֵ֧י אֲדֹנֶ֛יהָ אֲשֶׁר־ל֥וֹ יְעָדָ֖הּ וְהֶפְדָּ֑הּ
לְעַ֥ם נָכְרִ֛י לֹא־יִמְשֹׁ֥ל לְמָכְרָ֖הּ בְּבִגְדוֹ־בָֽהּ
8 If she is evil in the eyes of her lord, who for himself engaged her, then he will let her be ransomed.
It is not in his governance to sell her to a foreign people, given his treachery with her.
3c 4A 19
14
וְאִם־לִבְנ֖וֹ יִֽיעָדֶ֑נָּה
כְּמִשְׁפַּ֥ט הַבָּנ֖וֹת יַעֲשֶׂה־לָּֽהּ
9 And if for his son, she is engaged,
according to the framework of the daughters, he will do for her.
3e 4A 8
10
אִם־אַחֶ֖רֶת יִֽקַּֽח־ל֑וֹ
שְׁאֵרָ֛הּ כְּסוּתָ֥הּ וְעֹנָתָ֖הּ לֹ֥א יִגְרָֽע
10 If another he takes for himself,
her meat, her covering, and her conjugal rights, he will not lower.
3d 4A 7
13
וְאִם־שְׁלָ֨שׁ־אֵ֔לֶּה לֹ֥א יַעֲשֶׂ֖ה לָ֑הּ
וְיָצְאָ֥ה חִנָּ֖ם אֵ֥ין כָּֽסֶף
11 But if these three things he will not do for her,
then she will go out for nothing, without money.
3e 4A 11
8
מַכֵּ֥ה אִ֛ישׁ וָמֵ֖ת מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת 12 Who strikes a person who then dies will be put to death. 3d 3g 8
וַאֲשֶׁר֙ לֹ֣א צָדָ֔ה וְהָאֱלֹהִ֖ים אִנָּ֣ה לְיָד֑וֹ
וְשַׂמְתִּ֤י לְךָ֙ מָק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָנ֖וּס שָֽׁמָּה
13 But who does not chase, and God opportunes of his hand,
then I have set for you a place where he will withdraw.
3e 4C 16
13
וְכִֽי־יָזִ֥ד אִ֛ישׁ עַל־רֵעֵ֖הוּ לְהָרְג֣וֹ בְעָרְמָ֑ה
מֵעִ֣ם מִזְבְּחִ֔י תִּקָּחֶ֖נּוּ לָמֽוּת
14 But if anyone acts presumptuously against his associate to slay him with craftiness,
from my altar you will take him to die.
3d 4B 14
11
וּמַכֵּ֥ה אָבִ֛יו וְאִמּ֖וֹ מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת 15 And who strikes his father or his mother will be put to death. 3d 3g 11
וְגֹנֵ֨ב אִ֧ישׁ וּמְכָר֛וֹ וְנִמְצָ֥א בְיָד֖וֹ מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת 16 And one who steals someone and sells him, or if he is found in his hand, will be put to death. 3c 3g 16
וּמְקַלֵּ֥ל אָבִ֛יו וְאִמּ֖וֹ מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת 17 And who slights his father or his mother will be put to death. 3d 3g 11
וְכִֽי־יְרִיבֻ֣ן אֲנָשִׁ֔ים וְהִכָּה־אִישׁ֙ אֶת־רֵעֵ֔הוּ בְּאֶ֖בֶן א֣וֹ בְאֶגְרֹ֑ף
וְלֹ֥א יָמ֖וּת וְנָפַ֥ל לְמִשְׁכָּֽב
18 And if men dispute and a person strikes his associate with a stone or with a fist,
and he does not die but is fallen to a litter,
3e 4B 23
10
אִם־יָק֞וּם וְהִתְהַלֵּ֥ךְ בַּח֛וּץ עַל־מִשְׁעַנְתּ֖וֹ וְנִקָּ֣ה הַמַּכֶּ֑ה
רַ֥ק שִׁבְתּ֛וֹ יִתֵּ֖ן וְרַפֹּ֥א יְרַפֵּֽא
19 If he arises and walks outside with his staff, then the one who struck will be held innocent,
only for his recuperation he will give, that he be fully healed.
3d 4B 19
11
וְכִֽי־יַכֶּה֩ אִ֨ישׁ אֶת־עַבְדּ֜וֹ א֤וֹ אֶת־אֲמָתוֹ֙ בַּשֵּׁ֔בֶט וּמֵ֖ת תַּ֣חַת יָד֑וֹ
נָקֹ֖ם יִנָּקֵֽם
20 And if a person strikes his male slave or his maidservant with a sceptre, who then dies under his hand,
vengeance is sure.
3e 4C 21
5
אַ֥ךְ אִם־י֛וֹם א֥וֹ יוֹמַ֖יִם יַעֲמֹ֑ד
לֹ֣א יֻקַּ֔ם כִּ֥י כַסְפּ֖וֹ הֽוּא
21 f But if a day or two days he is standing,
he will not be avenged, for his money he is.
3d 4B 9
7
וְכִֽי־יִנָּצ֣וּ אֲנָשִׁ֗ים וְנָ֨גְפ֜וּ אִשָּׁ֤ה הָרָה֙ וְיָצְא֣וּ יְלָדֶ֔יהָ וְלֹ֥א יִהְיֶ֖ה אָס֑וֹן
עָנ֣וֹשׁ יֵעָנֵ֗שׁ כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֨ר יָשִׁ֤ית עָלָיו֙ בַּ֣עַל הָֽאִשָּׁ֔ה וְנָתַ֖ן בִּפְלִלִֽים
22 And if men struggle and plague a pregnant woman and her newborn is brought forth and there is no harm,
a fine will be amerced as the husband of the woman sets over him, and he will give through the intercessors.
3e 4C 27
23
וְאִם־אָס֖וֹן יִהְיֶ֑ה
וְנָתַתָּ֥ה נֶ֖פֶשׁ תַּ֥חַת נָֽפֶשׁ
23 But if harm there is,
then you will give throat in stead of throat.
3e 4A 6
10
עַ֚יִן תַּ֣חַת עַ֔יִן שֵׁ֖ן תַּ֣חַת שֵׁ֑ן
יָ֚ד תַּ֣חַת יָ֔ד רֶ֖גֶל תַּ֥חַת רָֽגֶל
24 C Eye in stead of eye, tooth in stead of tooth,
hand in stead of hand, foot in stead of foot.
3e 4C 8
10
כְּוִיָּה֙ תַּ֣חַת כְּוִיָּ֔ה פֶּ֖צַע תַּ֣חַת פָּ֑צַע
חַבּוּרָ֕ה תַּ֖חַת חַבּוּרָֽה
25 Brand in stead of brand, gash in stead of gash,
stripe in stead of stripe.
3e 4B 14
8
וְכִֽי־יַכֶּ֨ה אִ֜ישׁ אֶת־עֵ֥ין עַבְדּ֛וֹ אֽוֹ־אֶת־עֵ֥ין אֲמָת֖וֹ וְשִֽׁחֲתָ֑הּ
לַֽחָפְשִׁ֥י יְשַׁלְּחֶ֖נּוּ תַּ֥חַת עֵינֽוֹ
26 And if a man strikes the eye of his manservant or the eye of his maidservant and it is impaired,
he will send him off, free in stead of his eye.
3d 4A 18
11
וְאִם־שֵׁ֥ן עַבְדּ֛וֹ אֽוֹ־שֵׁ֥ן אֲמָת֖וֹ יַפִּ֑יל
לַֽחָפְשִׁ֥י יְשַׁלְּחֶ֖נּוּ תַּ֥חַת שִׁנּֽוֹ
27 And if a tooth of his manservant or a tooth of his maidservant he makes fall,
he will send him off, free in stead of his tooth.
3d 4A 12
11
וְכִֽי־יִגַּ֨ח שׁ֥וֹר אֶת־אִ֛ישׁ א֥וֹ אֶת־אִשָּׁ֖ה וָמֵ֑ת
סָק֨וֹל יִסָּקֵ֜ל הַשּׁ֗וֹר וְלֹ֤א יֵאָכֵל֙ אֶת־בְּשָׂר֔וֹ וּבַ֥עַל הַשּׁ֖וֹר נָקִֽי
28 And if a bull gores a man or a woman who then dies,
the bull will be engulfed by stones and its flesh will not be eaten, but the owner of the bull will be held innocent.
3d 4C 12
23
וְאִ֡ם שׁוֹר֩ נַגָּ֨ח ה֜וּא מִתְּמֹ֣ל שִׁלְשֹׁ֗ם וְהוּעַ֤ד בִּבְעָלָיו֙ וְלֹ֣א יִשְׁמְרֶ֔נּוּ וְהֵמִ֥ית אִ֖ישׁ א֣וֹ אִשָּׁ֑ה
הַשּׁוֹר֙ יִסָּקֵ֔ל וְגַם־בְּעָלָ֖יו יוּמָֽת
29 But if that bull had gored recently and its owner had known and he had not guarded it, and it had made a man or a woman die,
the bull will be engulfed by stones and moreover its owner will be put to death.
3e 4C 29
12
אִם־כֹּ֖פֶר יוּשַׁ֣ת עָלָ֑יו
וְנָתַן֙ פִּדְיֹ֣ן נַפְשׁ֔וֹ כְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יוּשַׁ֖ת עָלָֽיו
30 If a cover-price is set over him,
then he will give the ransom for his integrity all that is set over him.
3e 4B 7
15
אוֹ־בֵ֥ן יִגָּ֖ח אוֹ־בַ֣ת יִגָּ֑ח
כַּמִּשְׁפָּ֥ט הַזֶּ֖ה יֵעָ֥שֶׂה לּֽוֹ
31 Whether a son it had gored or a daughter it had gored,
according to this judgment it will be done to him.
3e 4B 8
9
אִם־עֶ֛בֶד יִגַּ֥ח הַשּׁ֖וֹר א֣וֹ אָמָ֑ה
כֶּ֣סֶף ׀ שְׁלֹשִׁ֣ים שְׁקָלִ֗ים יִתֵּן֙ לַֽאדֹנָ֔יו וְהַשּׁ֖וֹר יִסָּקֵֽל
32 If the bull gores a manservant or a maidservant,
thirty shekels of silver he will give to their master, and the bull will be engulfed by stones.
3d 4B 10
19
וְכִֽי־יִפְתַּ֨ח אִ֜ישׁ בּ֗וֹר א֠וֹ כִּֽי־יִכְרֶ֥ה אִ֛ישׁ בֹּ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יְכַסֶּ֑נּוּ
וְנָֽפַל־שָׁ֥מָּה שּׁ֖וֹר א֥וֹ חֲמֽוֹר
33 And if a person will open a pit, or if a person digs a pit and does not cover it,
and a bull or an ass falls there.
3d 4B 18
9
בַּ֤עַל הַבּוֹר֙ יְשַׁלֵּ֔ם כֶּ֖סֶף יָשִׁ֣יב לִבְעָלָ֑יו
וְהַמֵּ֖ת יִֽהְיֶה־לּֽוֹ
34 C The owner of the pit will pay. He will restore money to its owner.
And the one that is dead will be his.
3e 4C 14
6
וְכִֽי־יִגֹּ֧ף שֽׁוֹר־אִ֛ישׁ אֶת־שׁ֥וֹר רֵעֵ֖הוּ וָמֵ֑ת
וּמָ֨כְר֜וּ אֶת־הַשּׁ֤וֹר הַחַי֙ וְחָצ֣וּ אֶת־כַּסְפּ֔וֹ וְגַ֥ם אֶת־הַמֵּ֖ת יֶֽחֱצֽוּן
35 And if a bull of a person will plague a bull of his associate and it dies,
then they will sell the living bull and they will halve its money, and moreover the one that is dead they will halve.
3c 4C 12
22
א֣וֹ נוֹדַ֗ע כִּ֠י שׁ֣וֹר נַגָּ֥ח הוּא֙ מִתְּמ֣וֹל שִׁלְשֹׁ֔ם וְלֹ֥א יִשְׁמְרֶ֖נּוּ בְּעָלָ֑יו
שַׁלֵּ֨ם יְשַׁלֵּ֥ם שׁוֹר֙ תַּ֣חַת הַשּׁ֔וֹר וְהַמֵּ֖ת יִֽהְיֶה־לּֽוֹ
36 B Or it is known that that bull had gored recently, and its owner had not guarded it,
he will pay bull in stead of the bull, and the one that is dead will be his.
3e 4B 21
16
כִּ֤י יִגְנֹֽב־אִישׁ֙ שׁ֣וֹר אוֹ־שֶׂ֔ה וּטְבָח֖וֹ א֣וֹ מְכָר֑וֹ
חֲמִשָּׁ֣ה בָקָ֗ר יְשַׁלֵּם֙ תַּ֣חַת הַשּׁ֔וֹר וְאַרְבַּע־צֹ֖אן תַּ֥חַת הַשֶּֽׂה
37 C If a person stole a bull or a lamb and slaughtered it or sold it,
five of the herd he will pay in stead of the bull, and four of the flock in stead of the lamb.
3e 4C 14
20