Saturday, June 17, 2017

2 Chronicles 36

The last verse of the Hebrew Bible is a substantial invitation.
2 Chronicles 36 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיִּקְחוּ֙ עַם־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֶת־יְהוֹאָחָ֖ז בֶּן־יֹאשִׁיָּ֑הוּ
וַיַּמְלִיכֻ֥הוּ תַֽחַת־אָבִ֖יו בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם
1 And the people of the land took Jehoahaz, child of Josiah,
and made him king instead of his father in Jerusalem.
3e 4A 17
13
בֶּן־שָׁל֧וֹשׁ וְעֶשְׂרִ֛ים שָׁנָ֖ה יוֹאָחָ֣ז בְּמָלְכ֑וֹ
וּשְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה חֳדָשִׁ֔ים מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם
2 A child of three and twenty years was Joachaz when he began to reign,
and three months he reigned in Jerusalem.
3c 4B 14
12
וַיְסִירֵ֥הוּ מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַ֖יִם בִּֽירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וַֽיַּעֲנֹשׁ֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ מֵאָ֥ה כִכַּר־כֶּ֖סֶף וְכִכַּ֥ר זָהָֽב
3 And the king of Egypt put him aside in Jerusalem,
and fined the land a hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold.
3e 4A 12
19
וַיַּמְלֵ֨ךְ מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרַ֜יִם אֶת־אֶלְיָקִ֣ים אָחִ֗יו עַל־יְהוּדָה֙ וִיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם וַיַּסֵּ֥ב אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ יְהוֹיָקִ֑ים
וְאֶת־יוֹאָחָ֤ז אָחִיו֙ לָקַ֣ח נְכ֔וֹ וַיְבִיאֵ֖הוּ מִצְרָֽיְמָה
4 And the king of Egypt made Elyaqim his brother king over Judah and Jerusalem, and he changed his name to Jehoiachim,
and Neko took Joachaz, his brother, and brought him to Egypt.
3e 4C 31
18
בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִ֨ים וְחָמֵ֤שׁ שָׁנָה֙ יְהוֹיָקִ֣ים בְּמָלְכ֔וֹ וְאַחַ֤ת עֶשְׂרֵה֙ שָׁנָ֔ה מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וַיַּ֣עַשׂ הָרַ֔ע בְּעֵינֵ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהָֽיו
5 A child of twenty five years was Jehoiachim when he began to reign, and eleven years he reigned in Jerusalem.
And he did evil in the eyes of Yahweh, his God.
3e 4C 28
13
עָלָ֣יו עָלָ֔ה נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּ֖ר מֶ֣לֶךְ בָּבֶ֑ל
וַיַּֽאַסְרֵ֙הוּ֙ בַּֽנְחֻשְׁתַּ֔יִם לְהֹלִיכ֖וֹ בָּבֶֽלָה
6 Against him Nebuchadnezzar king of Babel came up,
and bound him with brass chains and ushered him to Babel.
3e 4B 13
15
וּמִכְּלֵי֙ בֵּ֣ית יְהוָ֔ה הֵבִ֥יא נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּ֖ר לְבָבֶ֑ל
וַיִּתְּנֵ֥ם בְּהֵיכָל֖וֹ בְּבָבֶֽל
7 And from the vessels of the house of Yahweh, Nebuchadnezzar brought some to Babel,
and he consigned them in his temple in Babel.
3e 4B 16
10
וְיֶתֶר֩ דִּבְרֵ֨י יְהֽוֹיָקִ֜ים וְתֹֽעֲבֹתָ֤יו אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה֙ וְהַנִּמְצָ֣א עָלָ֔יו הִנָּ֣ם כְּתוּבִ֗ים עַל־סֵ֛פֶר מַלְכֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וִֽיהוּדָ֑ה
וַיִּמְלֹ֛ךְ יְהוֹיָכִ֥ין בְּנ֖וֹ תַּחְתָּֽיו
8 And the remaining words of Jehoiachim and his abominations that he did or that were found out by him, behold they are written in the record of the kings of Israel and Judah.
And Jehoiakin his son reigned in his stead.
3d 4C 40
11
בֶּן־שְׁמוֹנֶ֤ה שָׁנִים֙ יְהוֹיָכִ֣ין בְּמָלְכ֔וֹ וּשְׁלֹשָׁ֤ה חֳדָשִׁים֙ וַעֲשֶׂ֣רֶת יָמִ֔ים מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וַיַּ֥עַשׂ הָרַ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהוָֽה
9 A child of eight years was Jehoiakin when he began to reign, and three months and ten days he reigned in Jerusalem.
And he did evil in the eyes of Yahweh.
3e 4C 31
10
וְלִתְשׁוּבַ֣ת הַשָּׁנָ֗ה שָׁלַח֙ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ נְבֽוּכַדְנֶאצַּ֔ר וַיְבִאֵ֣הוּ בָבֶ֔לָה עִם־כְּלֵ֖י חֶמְדַּ֣ת בֵּית־יְהוָ֑ה
וַיַּמְלֵךְ֙ אֶת־צִדְקִיָּ֣הוּ אָחִ֔יו עַל־יְהוּדָ֖ה וִֽירוּשָׁלִָֽם
10 And at the turn of the year king Nebuchadnezzar sent and brought him to Babel, with the coveted vessels of the house of Yahweh,
and made Zedekiah his brother king over Judah and Jerusalem.
3e 4B 32
18
בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִ֧ים וְאַחַ֛ת שָׁנָ֖ה צִדְקִיָּ֣הוּ בְמָלְכ֑וֹ
וְאַחַ֤ת עֶשְׂרֵה֙ שָׁנָ֔ה מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם
11 A child of twenty one years was Zedekiah when he began to reign,
and eleven years he reigned in Jerusalem.
3c 4C 15
13
וַיַּ֣עַשׂ הָרַ֔ע בְּעֵינֵ֖י יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֑יו
לֹ֣א נִכְנַ֗ע מִלִּפְנֵ֛י יִרְמְיָ֥הוּ הַנָּבִ֖יא מִפִּ֥י יְהוָֽה
12 And he did evil in the eyes of Yahweh his God.
He did not subdue himself before Jeremiah the prophet per the mandate of Yahweh.
3d 4B 13
17
וְ֠גַם בַּמֶּ֤לֶךְ נְבֽוּכַדְנֶאצַּר֙ מָרָ֔ד אֲשֶׁ֥ר הִשְׁבִּיע֖וֹ בֵּֽאלֹהִ֑ים
וַיֶּ֤קֶשׁ אֶת־עָרְפּוֹ֙ וַיְאַמֵּ֣ץ אֶת־לְבָב֔וֹ מִשּׁ֕וּב אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
13 ~ And even against king Nebuchadnezzar he mutinied, who had made him swear by God.
But he hardened his scruff and assured heart, from turning to Yahweh the God of Israel.
3e 4C 20
24
גַּ֠ם כָּל־שָׂרֵ֨י הַכֹּהֲנִ֤ים וְהָעָם֙ הִרְבּ֣וּ לִמְעָול־מַ֔עַל כְּכֹ֖ל תֹּעֲב֣וֹת הַגּוֹיִ֑ם
וַֽיְטַמְּאוּ֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר הִקְדִּ֖ישׁ בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם
14 ~ Furthermore all the chiefs of the priests and the people increased trespass according to all the abominations of the nations,
and defiled the house of Yahweh that he had sanctified in Jerusalem.
3e 4C 25
15
וַיִּשְׁלַ֡ח יְהוָה֩ אֱלֹהֵ֨י אֲבוֹתֵיהֶ֧ם עֲלֵיהֶ֛ם בְּיַ֥ד מַלְאָכָ֖יו הַשְׁכֵּ֣ם וְשָׁל֑וֹחַ
כִּֽי־חָמַ֥ל עַל־עַמּ֖וֹ וְעַל־מְעוֹנֽוֹ
15 And Yahweh the God of their ancestors reached out to them by the hand of his messengers, rising early, and sending,
for he had pity on his people and his habitation.
3c 4B 26
10
וַיִּֽהְי֤וּ מַלְעִבִים֙ בְּמַלְאֲכֵ֣י הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים וּבוֹזִ֣ים דְּבָרָ֔יו וּמִֽתַּעְתְּעִ֖ים בִּנְבִאָ֑יו
עַ֠ד עֲל֧וֹת חֲמַת־יְהוָ֛ה בְּעַמּ֖וֹ עַד־לְאֵ֥ין מַרְפֵּֽא
16 But they sneered at the messengers of God, and despised his words, and misused his prophets,
until the heat of Yahweh ascended against his people, until there was no physician.
3c 4C 28
15
וַיַּ֨עַל עֲלֵיהֶ֜ם אֶת־מֶ֣לֶךְ כַּשְׂדִּ֗ים וַיַּהֲרֹ֨ג בַּחוּרֵיהֶ֤ם בַּחֶ֙רֶב֙ בְּבֵ֣ית מִקְדָּשָׁ֔ם וְלֹ֥א חָמַ֛ל עַל־בָּח֥וּר וּבְתוּלָ֖ה זָקֵ֣ן וְיָשֵׁ֑שׁ
הַכֹּ֖ל נָתַ֥ן בְּיָדֽוֹ
17 And he brought up against them the king of the Chaldeans, and he slew their young men by the sword in the house of their sanctuary, and he had no pity on young man or maiden, elder or hoary.
Everything he gave into his hand.
3d 4C 42
7
וְ֠כֹל כְּלֵ֞י בֵּ֤ית הָאֱלֹהִים֙ הַגְּדֹלִ֣ים וְהַקְּטַנִּ֔ים וְאֹֽצְרוֹת֙ בֵּ֣ית יְהוָ֔ה וְאֹצְר֥וֹת הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וְשָׂרָ֑יו
הַכֹּ֖ל הֵבִ֥יא בָבֶֽל
18 ~ And all the vessels of the house of God, the greatest to the least, and the treasuries of the house of Yahweh, and the treasuries of the king and his nobility,
everything, he brought to Babel.
3e 4C 31
6
וַֽיִּשְׂרְפוּ֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים וַֽיְנַתְּצ֔וּ אֵ֖ת חוֹמַ֣ת יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וְכָל־אַרְמְנוֹתֶ֙יהָ֙ שָׂרְפ֣וּ בָאֵ֔שׁ וְכָל־כְּלֵ֥י מַחֲמַדֶּ֖יהָ לְהַשְׁחִֽית
19 And they incinerated the house of God, and they broke down the wall of Jerusalem,
and all her citadels they incinerated in the fire, and all her coveted vessels were destroyed.
3e 4B 20
23
וַיֶּ֛גֶל הַשְּׁאֵרִ֥ית מִן־הַחֶ֖רֶב אֶל־בָּבֶ֑ל
וַֽיִּהְיוּ־ל֤וֹ וּלְבָנָיו֙ לַעֲבָדִ֔ים עַד־מְלֹ֖ךְ מַלְכ֥וּת פָּרָֽס
20 And he exiled the residue from the sword to Babel,
and they became for him and for his children as servants, until the reign of the kingdom of Persia.
3d 4C 13
17
לְמַלֹּ֤אות דְּבַר־יְהוָה֙ בְּפִ֣י יִרְמְיָ֔הוּ עַד־רָצְתָ֥ה הָאָ֖רֶץ אֶת־שַׁבְּתוֹתֶ֑יהָ
כָּל־יְמֵ֤י הָשַּׁמָּה֙ שָׁבָ֔תָה לְמַלֹּ֖אות שִׁבְעִ֥ים שָׁנָֽה
21 To fulfill the word of Yahweh by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the land accepted her Sabbaths.
All the days of her desolation she kept Sabbath, to fulfill a seventy year span.
3e 4C 25
17
וּבִשְׁנַ֣ת אַחַ֗ת לְכ֙וֹרֶשׁ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ פָּרַ֔ס לִכְל֥וֹת דְּבַר־יְהוָ֖ה בְּפִ֣י יִרְמְיָ֑הוּ
הֵעִ֣יר יְהוָ֗ה אֶת־ר֙וּחַ֙ כּ֣וֹרֶשׁ מֶֽלֶךְ־פָּרַ֔ס וַיַּֽעֲבֶר־קוֹל֙ בְּכָל־מַלְכוּת֔וֹ וְגַם־בְּמִכְתָּ֖ב לֵאמֹֽר
22 And in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, to consummate the word of Yahweh by the mouth of Jeremiah,
Yahweh roused the spirit of Cyrus, king of Persia, and with a voice reaching across all his kingdom and even in writing, he made a pronouncement,
3e 4B 24
30
כֹּה־אָמַ֞ר כּ֣וֹרֶשׁ ׀ מֶ֣לֶךְ פָּרַ֗ס כָּל־מַמְלְכ֤וֹת הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ נָ֣תַן לִ֗י יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וְהֽוּא־פָקַ֤ד עָלַי֙ לִבְנֽוֹת־ל֣וֹ בַ֔יִת בִּירוּשָׁלִַ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּֽיהוּדָ֑ה
מִֽי־בָכֶ֣ם מִכָּל־עַמּ֗וֹ יְהוָ֧ה אֱלֹהָ֛יו עִמּ֖וֹ וְיָֽעַל
23 Thus says Cyrus king of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth Yahweh the God of the heavens has given me, and he has entrusted me to build for him a house in Jerusalem that is in Judah.
Who is among you from all his people? Yahweh his God is with him. So let him go up.
3c 4C 47
16
I have left the last verse in normal English rather than forcing a non-gender article on it. At the time, whether it was gender inclusive or not is probably irrelevant. In the long run, given the limits of our languages, we should learn to make the inclusive decision unless it is clear that genders are intentionally separated in the text. In this case the invitation is to Aliyah (from עלה ascend, go up, burnt offering, etc), the name that Jews give today to their return to the land.