Thursday, December 28, 2017

Deuteronomy 20

How does one fight ___ enemies (verse 4). Fill in the blank. If I use על or ב or עם? Then what? Is it always against in the blank? Or is that all we can imagine?

Our excuse for this chapter is in Judges 3. There have to be some enemies left in the land. The ban was never complete. The only way to take 'enemies' and to distinguish good from evil (a primal task) is analogically or as must be, time-bound to the period of the writing of these instructions. We have plenty of internal enemies - fear, judgment, desire, etc. They need management at the least. And הזק, resolve. New Year's coming up.

Deuteronomy 20 Fn Min Max
כִּֽי־תֵצֵ֨א לַמִּלְחָמָ֜ה עַל־אֹיְבֶ֗יךָ וְֽרָאִ֜יתָ ס֤וּס וָרֶ֙כֶב֙ עַ֚ם רַ֣ב מִמְּךָ֔ לֹ֥א תִירָ֖א מֵהֶ֑ם
כִּֽי־יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ הַמַּֽעַלְךָ֖ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם
1 When you go out to war against your enemies, and you see horses and chariot of a people more abundant than you, you will not fear them,
for Yahweh, your God is with you, who brought you up from the land of Egypt.
3e 4C
וְהָיָ֕ה כְּקָֽרָבְכֶ֖ם אֶל־הַמִּלְחָמָ֑ה
וְנִגַּ֥שׁ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְדִבֶּ֥ר אֶל־הָעָֽם
2 And it will be when you approach the warriors,
the priest will come close, and speak to the people.
3e 4A
וְאָמַ֤ר אֲלֵהֶם֙ שְׁמַ֣ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אַתֶּ֨ם קְרֵבִ֥ים הַיּ֛וֹם לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה עַל־אֹיְבֵיכֶ֑ם
אַל־יֵרַ֣ךְ לְבַבְכֶ֗ם אַל־תִּֽירְא֧וּ וְאַֽל־תַּחְפְּז֛וּ וְאַל־תַּֽעַרְצ֖וּ מִפְּנֵיהֶֽם
3 And say to them, Hear, O Israel. You approach today to war against your enemies.
Let not your heart be flustered. Do not fear and do not be in haste and do not be in a panic before them.
3c 4C
כִּ֚י יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם הַהֹלֵ֖ךְ עִמָּכֶ֑ם
לְהִלָּחֵ֥ם לָכֶ֛ם עִם־אֹיְבֵיכֶ֖ם לְהוֹשִׁ֥יעַ אֶתְכֶֽם
4 C For Yahweh your God goes with you,
to fight for you with your enemies, to save you.
3d 4C
וְדִבְּר֣וּ הַשֹּֽׁטְרִים֮ אֶל־הָעָ֣ם לֵאמֹר֒ מִֽי־הָאִ֞ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֨ר בָּנָ֤ה בַֽיִת־חָדָשׁ֙ וְלֹ֣א חֲנָכ֔וֹ יֵלֵ֖ךְ וְיָשֹׁ֣ב לְבֵית֑וֹ
פֶּן־יָמוּת֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְאִ֥ישׁ אַחֵ֖ר יַחְנְכֶֽנּוּ
5 And the overseers will speak to the people, saying, Who is the man who has built a new house and not dedicated it? Let him go and return to his house,
lest he die in the battle and someone following dedicate it.
3e 4C
וּמִֽי־הָאִ֞ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־נָטַ֥ע כֶּ֙רֶם֙ וְלֹ֣א חִלְּל֔וֹ יֵלֵ֖ךְ וְיָשֹׁ֣ב לְבֵית֑וֹ
פֶּן־יָמוּת֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְאִ֥ישׁ אַחֵ֖ר יְחַלְּלֶֽנּוּ
6 And who is the person who has planted a vineyard and not begun to use it? Let him go and return to his house,
lest he die in the battle and someone following begin to use it.
3e 4B
וּמִֽי־הָאִ֞ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אֵרַ֤שׂ אִשָּׁה֙ וְלֹ֣א לְקָחָ֔הּ יֵלֵ֖ךְ וְיָשֹׁ֣ב לְבֵית֑וֹ
פֶּן־יָמוּת֙ בַּמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְאִ֥ישׁ אַחֵ֖ר יִקָּחֶֽנָּה
7 And who is the person who has betrothed a wife and has not taken her? Let him go and return to his house,
lest he die in the battle and someone following take her.
3e 4C
וְיָסְפ֣וּ הַשֹּׁטְרִים֮ לְדַבֵּ֣ר אֶל־הָעָם֒ וְאָמְר֗וּ מִי־הָאִ֤ישׁ הַיָּרֵא֙ וְרַ֣ךְ הַלֵּבָ֔ב יֵלֵ֖ךְ וְיָשֹׁ֣ב לְבֵית֑וֹ
וְלֹ֥א יִמַּ֛ס אֶת־לְבַ֥ב אֶחָ֖יו כִּלְבָבֽוֹ
8 And again the overseers will speak to the people and they will say, Who is man who fears or is tender of heart? Let him go and return to his house,
and not make the heart of his kin melt like his own heart.
3d 4C
וְהָיָ֛ה כְּכַלֹּ֥ת הַשֹּׁטְרִ֖ים לְדַבֵּ֣ר אֶל־הָעָ֑ם
וּפָֽקְד֛וּ שָׂרֵ֥י צְבָא֖וֹת בְּרֹ֥אשׁ הָעָֽם
9 And it will be, when the overseers have finished speaking to the people,
they will conscript chiefs of the hosts at the head of the people.
3d 4B
כִּֽי־תִקְרַ֣ב אֶל־עִ֔יר לְהִלָּחֵ֖ם עָלֶ֑יהָ
וְקָרָ֥אתָ אֵלֶ֖יהָ לְשָׁלֽוֹם
10 When you approach to a city to fight against her,
proclaim to her in peace.
3e 4B
וְהָיָה֙ אִם־שָׁל֣וֹם תַּֽעַנְךָ֔ וּפָתְחָ֖ה לָ֑ךְ
וְהָיָ֞ה כָּל־הָעָ֣ם הַנִּמְצָא־בָ֗הּ יִהְי֥וּ לְךָ֛ לָמַ֖ס וַעֲבָדֽוּךָ
11 And it will be, if peace she answers you, and opens to you,
then it will be that all the people, whatever is found in her, will be for you in forced service, and they will serve you.
3d 4B
וְאִם־לֹ֤א תַשְׁלִים֙ עִמָּ֔ךְ וְעָשְׂתָ֥ה עִמְּךָ֖ מִלְחָמָ֑ה
וְצַרְתָּ֖ עָלֶֽיהָּ
12 And if she will not make peace with you but will make war with you,
then you will lay siege against her.
3e 4C
וּנְתָנָ֛הּ יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בְּיָדֶ֑ךָ
וְהִכִּיתָ֥ אֶת־כָּל־זְכוּרָ֖הּ לְפִי־חָֽרֶב
13 And Yahweh your God will give her into your hand,
and you will strike every male with the edge of the sword.
3d 4A
רַ֣ק הַ֠נָּשִׁים וְהַטַּ֨ף וְהַבְּהֵמָ֜ה וְכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִהְיֶ֥ה בָעִ֛יר כָּל־שְׁלָלָ֖הּ תָּבֹ֣ז לָ֑ךְ
וְאָֽכַלְתָּ֙ אֶת־שְׁלַ֣ל אֹיְבֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֛ן יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לָֽךְ
14 B But the women and the little ones and the cattle, and all that is in the city, all its spoil, you will loot for you,
and you will eat the spoil of your enemies that Yahweh your God gave to you.
3d 4B
כֵּ֤ן תַּעֲשֶׂה֙ לְכָל־הֶ֣עָרִ֔ים הָרְחֹקֹ֥ת מִמְּךָ֖ מְאֹ֑ד
אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־מֵעָרֵ֥י הַגּֽוֹיִם־הָאֵ֖לֶּה הֵֽנָּה
15 C So you will do to all the cities at an excessive distance from you,
that are not from the cities of these nations.
3d 4C
רַ֗ק מֵעָרֵ֤י הָֽעַמִּים֙ הָאֵ֔לֶּה אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַחֲלָ֑ה
לֹ֥א תְחַיֶּ֖ה כָּל־נְשָׁמָֽה
16 ~ But from the cities of these peoples that Yahweh your God is giving to you as inheritance,
you will not let any breath-bearing live.
3e 4C
כִּֽי־הַחֲרֵ֣ם תַּחֲרִימֵ֗ם הַחִתִּ֤י וְהָאֱמֹרִי֙ הַכְּנַעֲנִ֣י וְהַפְּרִזִּ֔י הַחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִ֑י
כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוְּךָ֖ יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ
17 But you will utterly destroy the Hittite and the Amorite, the Canaanite and the Perizzite, the Hivites and the Jebusites,
as Yahweh your God is commanding you.
3e 4C
לְמַ֗עַן אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־יְלַמְּד֤וּ אֶתְכֶם֙ לַעֲשׂ֔וֹת כְּכֹל֙ תּֽוֹעֲבֹתָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשׂ֖וּ לֵֽאלֹהֵיהֶ֑ם
וַחֲטָאתֶ֖ם לַיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
18 In order that they may not teach you to do according to all their abominations that they do to their gods,
and you sin against Yahweh your God.
3e 4C
כִּֽי־תָצ֣וּר אֶל־עִיר֩ יָמִ֨ים רַבִּ֜ים לְֽהִלָּחֵ֧ם עָלֶ֣יהָ לְתָפְשָׂ֗הּ לֹֽא־תַשְׁחִ֤ית אֶת־עֵצָהּ֙ לִנְדֹּ֤חַ עָלָיו֙ גַּרְזֶ֔ן כִּ֚י מִמֶּ֣נּוּ תֹאכֵ֔ל וְאֹת֖וֹ לֹ֣א תִכְרֹ֑ת
כִּ֤י הָֽאָדָם֙ עֵ֣ץ הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה לָבֹ֥א מִפָּנֶ֖יךָ בַּמָּצֽוֹר
19 When you besiege a city many days, making war against her to occupy her, you will not destroy her trees, to impel against them an adze, for from them you eat, so them you will not cut,
(for of the human are the trees of the field) to bring from before you into the siege.
3c 4C
רַ֞ק עֵ֣ץ אֲשֶׁר־תֵּדַ֗ע כִּֽי־לֹא־עֵ֤ץ מַאֲכָל֙ ה֔וּא אֹת֥וֹ תַשְׁחִ֖ית וְכָרָ֑תָּ
וּבָנִ֣יתָ מָצ֗וֹר עַל־הָעִיר֙ אֲשֶׁר־הִ֨וא עֹשָׂ֧ה עִמְּךָ֛ מִלְחָמָ֖ה עַ֥ד רִדְתָּֽהּ
20 ~ But the trees that you know that they are not trees for food, them you may destroy and cut,
and you will build fortification against the city that makes war with you until it is brought down.
3c 4C